BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS

John Maxwell Cowley 1923–2004

This memoir was originally published in Historical Records of Australian Science, vol.17, no.2, 2006.

Numbers in brackets refer to the bibliography at the end of the text. The first number refers to the bibliography section, the second to the item number within that section.

John Cowley contributed significantly to all of the fields that relate to electron diffraction and electron microscopy, and helped to found not a few of them. His name is associated in particular with n-beam dynamical theory, high-resolution electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, instrumental design, and the application of the techniques of electron scattering to structure analysis. His experimental work was not, however, confined to the scattering of electrons: to take but one instance, his seminal work on the theory of short-range order was stimulated initially by his experiments using X-rays, and it was only later that he extended the technique to include electron diffraction. Finally, to all those who practise the techniques of scattering electrons, X-rays, or neutrons in the study of solids, liquids or gases, his book Diffraction Physics remains not only eminently readable but authoritative.

With the death of John Cowley the worlds of crystallography, microscopy and materials lost a great scientist, those who knew him personally lost a friend, and those of us who had the privilege of working with him lost, in addition, a mentor. For working with John was a remarkable experience. His insight into the fundamental physics underlying some, frequently confused, phenomenon was eerie and allowed him to describe and then analyse the situation in often deceptively simple but in fact decisive mathematical language.

Under those circumstances it might very well be imagined that collaboration with John would only have been possible for those few with commensurate abilities. As many of us can testify, however, this was not the case, for John was possessed not only with a gift for exposition, but also with the patience to impart what frequently must have seemed obvious to him, in an enlightening rather than in a demoralizing way. Few have not experienced the illusion unwittingly created by a brilliant speaker that an intricate subject has now become transparent, but the insights that John imparted proved permanent. How this was achieved is far from clear, but an important contributing factor must have been his extraordinary ability to relate key steps in a process to experimentally realisable situations, a facility he possessed from very early in his career. Nor were the experiments that he invoked a theorist's abstractions for, like so many of the great crystallographers, he was equally at home at the bench, at the desk and, indeed, as a designer in the workshop.

John's abilities were appreciated by his family early in his life. His forebears, mostly wheat and sheep farmers, settled in South Australia in 1845, and the tradition of country living persisted into his parents' generation. As a consequence, John's early education was pursued in a succession of small country state schools as his father, a Methodist minister, was called to a succession of circuits. His parents were determined that their four children should enjoy the educational opportunities that circumstances had denied them, and in this they succeeded handsomely with three graduating from the University of Adelaide. John started his secondary education in a country state school but almost immediately won a scholarship to Prince Alfred College, where, in turn, he won the scholarship that took him to the University of Adelaide in 1940 at the age of seventeen. He obtained a first class honours in physics in 1943 and an MSc in 1945. At that time, while the physics department had few staff and limited resources, it enjoyed a well-deserved reputation in the training of its students. In particular, both John and an earlier student, Sir Mark Oliphant, both acknowledged that they benefited greatly from the guidance of the Senior Lecturer, Dr R. S. Burdon.

It was in those years that John first encountered electron diffraction and came into direct contact with wave-particle duality. While he was always mindful of Bohr's assessment of those who believed that they understood quantum mechanics, John never appeared to have any doubt as to how he might set about describing a quantum system, relishing and by no means being dismayed by anti-intuitive outcomes. As many of his colleagues can attest, the wave nature of the electron was no remote or discouragingly abstract conception to him. Peering at the viewing screen while he manipulated the controls of an electron microscope, he could be seen to be thinking in terms of wave functions.

His work in Adelaide brought him to the attention of Dr Ian (later Sir Ian) Wark, Chief of the Division of Industrial Chemistry of Australia's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, later CSIRO); and of Dr Lloyd Rees, who encouraged him to join the Chemical Physics Section, just then being set up in the Division under Rees' leadership. The broad intention behind the formation of this Section was to ensure that expertise in emerging techniques in physics that were likely to find application in chemistry should be available within CSIR. In addition, Lloyd Rees laid a particular emphasis on the development of novel instruments.

Since staff were expected to combine long-term research with collaborative work on short-term projects of immediate application, both Wark and Rees devoted a good deal of consideration to the selection of those who might be supposed to possess both the ability and the temperament appropriate to such varied activities. John Cowley fitted happily into this category and his impact was immediate. Within the next three years he had designed and brought into operation an X-ray diffractometer, collaborated in the design and operation of a high-resolution electron diffraction camera (1,18)* and, along with a number of colleagues, published papers on subjects ranging from the structure of industrially significant minerals (1,5), through aspects of yielding in steel (1,3) to lubrication (1,7), solid-state rectifiers (1,8) and the refraction of electrons in polyhedral crystals (1,2).

To undertake the design of a high- resolution electron diffraction camera in many ways typified John's outlook. It was the conventional wisdom of the time that nothing significant remained to be resolved, but John, while giving due weight to tradition, never allowed himself to be dominated by it. In this he was in entire agreement with his section leader, Lloyd Rees, and, though neither knew it at the time, with a brilliant young Japanese theorist, Norio Kato.

At this juncture John was granted leave of absence to study for a PhD under the direction of Professor R. Warren at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States; and it was here that, arguably, he first attracted wide international attention with his work, both experimental (1,9) and theoretical (1,10), on order in alloys. This was a subject that he had not previously encountered but, starting from the Bragg–Williams foundations, a penetrating analysis led him to a quantitative description that has proved to be of central importance to the entire subject. Few metallurgists would fail to recognise the patterns deriving from the memorable analysis of Cu3Au. Indeed these patterns have an aesthetic as well as a scientific appeal. They have been incorporated in the decoration of fabrics and, memorably, form the dust jacket of Professor Warren's Festschrift.

On his return to Melbourne, John again became involved in a variety of what might seem to be unusually diverse projects. To appreciate the reasons for this, it is relevant to recall something of the policy obtaining in CSIRO at that period. The organization addressed problems and opportunities, industrial, agricultural and social, of relevance to Australia. This was interpreted, as it proved with great success, by Lloyd Rees as inclusive of approaches that might range from routine competence in, say, analysis, to the devising of completely novel techniques. John was adept and enthusiastic in work of direct application as well as in the wider fields with which he is usually associated and he was, accordingly, in great demand as a collaborator in, for instance, mineralogy, metallurgy and catalytic, inorganic and clay chemistry.

Two main themes emerged, however, in his longer-term work, namely the extraction of structural information from single- crystal electron diffraction patterns (1,13) and the quantitative analysis of dynamical scattering data. The motivation for both those lines of inquiry derived from the desire to extract structural, as distinct from merely geometric, information from electron diffraction patterns. In particular, John's intention was to exploit advantages deriving from either electron optics or scattering processes peculiar to electrons.

In addressing structure-analytical problems in electron diffraction at this juncture, John was continually mindful of the limitations imposed by the first Born approximation and what later became known as the phase-grating approximation, but within those limitations he not only established a framework for analysis, he illustrated his approach by the determination of a wide variety of structures. This work exemplifies equally his powerful grasp of structure-analytical technique, of the niceties of electron interaction, and of order–disorder phenomena. The investigation into various structural aspects of boric acid constitutes a particularly striking example (1,15).

A very different but equally influential example is the work undertaken with Professor J. Ibers, a colleague from America, and Dr Robert Croft, a chemist from within CSIRO, on the determination of the structure of that prototypic intercalate, ferric chloride-graphite (1,25). Here the advantages to be gained, relative to X-ray diffraction, stemmed largely from the inherently limited order in the compound. Electron optics could be employed to illuminate a relatively small area so that quasi- single-crystal patterns could be obtained, and since the order in the direction of the beam was also limited, dynamical effects were such that, with discretion, structural information could be successfully extracted. The word discretion is important here, for in this type of work, John did not establish prescriptions; rather he demonstrated what was possible, and moreover possible for a range of materials not accessible to conventional approaches.

The second theme is best represented by his collaborative work with Peter Goodman and Lloyd Rees on dynamical fine structure (1,27). Here, contact was made with the theoretical work of Norio Kato who, without using the column approximation, predicted the nature of dynamical fine structure from a wedge, using Bethe's formulation in the two-beam approximation. Kato, who had been assured that the patterns that he predicted could never be observed, always regarded the utilization of his theoretical predictions in the subsequent publication in Acta Crystallographica as a turning point in his career. Resolution of the dynamical fine structure stemmed directly from the insight shared by Lloyd and John in assessing the need for high angular resolution in electron diffraction, and in their skill in achieving it. Dynamical theory at this juncture had become virtually synonymous with the two-beam approximation introduced by Ewald in his dynamical theory of X-ray scattering, and by Bethe in his dynamical theory of electron diffraction. This was far from the initial intention of either of these men but a variety of historical misconceptions, deriving largely from experimental deficiencies, led many to this view. However, any direct extension to many beams certainly raised formidable difficulties.

The opportunity to initiate an oblique approach arose as a result of a chance observation of a distant sodium street light in the Melbourne suburb of Oakleigh, when observed through a nylon kitchen curtain of rather precise weave. This raised questions about the imaging of periodic objects (1,28), questions that had scarcely been examined since Lord Rayleigh won a medal presented by the Royal Society for a description of scattering from a simple one-dimensional acoustic grating. (The calculation was undertaken in response to a question raised by Fox Talbot on the origin of the difficulty in obtaining precise focus on an optical grating.)

In order to describe in compact form, say, the scattering of light by a general two- dimensional phase grating illuminated by a source of finite size, it was found convenient, working in the paraxial approximation, to rewrite the standard equations in a form where the techniques of the Fourier transform could be readily exploited (1,32). The multiple focal planes that were found to be generated – in fact, the planes of the Fourier images – could then be assessed in relation to the electron microscopy of crystals at atomic resolution. This development, in turn, raised in acute form the need for an explicit solution to the problem of the scattering of electrons by a crystal into an arbitrary number of beams.

The technique that had been found effective in the description of scattering from periodic objects was therefore generalized so that scattering by a sequence of objects was described in co-ordinate space by alternating multiplication by transmission functions with convolution by Fresnel propagators. A crystal is then envisaged as being cut into parallel slices of arbitrary thicknesses, not necessarily equal. The contents of the slices are projected on to planes that act as two-dimensional mixed phase and amplitude gratings to modulate the wave function, which, in turn, propagates between the planes.

In practice it was found convenient to work in momentum space, where the operators for multiplication and convolution are interchanged and act on the Fourier transforms of the transmission functions and the propagators. Symmetries inherent in the propagators greatly simplify the calculations. The calculation is then carried through and the impulse limit taken; that is, the number of slices is taken to infinity as the thicknesses of the slices go to zero, in such a way that the product of number and thickness remains finite and equal to the thickness of the crystal. An explicit solution is obtained in the form of an infinite series in ascending order of interaction (1,31) – in effect, a Born series. In retrospect, various transformed versions of the solution seem almost obvious,1 but various delicate mathematical points are involved in the limiting process and these were not explored in the initial submission. A good deal later it was shown that this 'multislice' method, as it became known, is closely related to that of Feynman quantum mechanics, that the problems in measure are equivalent and by no means trivial, but that the procedure ultimately leads to the Schrödinger equation.2 It was not, in the event, for reasons related to measure that John's manuscript was initially rejected, but basically because of misconceptions over the role of eigenvalues and eigenvectors in quantum mechanics. Intervention by one of the originators of dynamical theories reversed the decision, however, and the paper was published unchanged.

Within a few years the same solution had been obtained by other techniques, all of which could be shown to be equivalent (1,43). The solution that emerged, in its many and varied forms, along with its theoretical, experimental and numerical ramifications, still occupies many in the disciplines of electron diffraction and in the equally diverse field of electron microscopy.

At this juncture, a development that was to extend over the years began to emerge, with collaborators in significant numbers and from all quarters of the world gathering round John. His high abilities as a teacher became increasingly apparent, and his accession to the Chamber of Manufactures Chair of Physics in the University of Melbourne in 1962 seemed not only appropriate but virtually inevitable. Here he set up a highly individual school of extraordinary productivity, numbering amongst its graduates some of the most distinguished current workers in the field. During this period he also wrote Diffraction Physics (4,1), one of the central texts in crystallography and one that has remained indispensable, equally to two generations of students and to their supervisors. In its directness, clarity and simplicity it bears, as all great scientific books do, an unmistakable personal stamp.

The work carried through on many- beam scattering had treated inelastic interactions by assigning an absorption coefficient to each structure amplitude. This is limited to providing only phenomenological descriptions of, say, Borrman effects. John set about repairing this deficiency and, in a series of papers (1,52) with his post-graduate students, laid the foundations for what has evolved into a field in its own right, extending into microscopy as well as diffraction.

The development of n-beam theory had been stimulated equally by diffraction and microscopy and central points having been established in diffraction, applications could be confidently undertaken in microscopy. The resolution now available in commercial electron microscopes was just sufficient to explore crucial points raised by Wadsley's seminal work in inorganic chemistry and X-ray diffraction.3,4 This work had been carried through in CSIRO and it was again in this organization that central results – for instance, confirmation of the existence of Wadsley defects and the coexistence of a range of phases in the block oxides – was established by electron microscopy, necessarily utilizing many beams.5,6 The Wadsley defect constitutes a delicate test since typically there is only a change in stoichiometry, with little or no attendant strain across the 'shear plane' with vertex sharing changing into edge sharing, say, so that near-atomic resolution is required, even for detection. John, in part through his students,7 collaborated at an early stage in the research and this extended to incisive work undertaken later in America on high-resolution lattice imaging, initially of the block oxides. It was characteristic of John that his entire attention, on this as on other occasions, was directed towards the scientific outcomes of the inquiry. Collaboration, as ever, was therefore very straightforward. The all too familiar difficulties involving personalities and, above all, institutions, simply never arose.

Concurrently with these activities, John revisited his seminal work on short-range ordering and, along with his collaborators, substantially extended its range of application. This, among other matters, led to the development of a graphic model involving the curvature of the Fermi surface and its relation to the diffuse scattering observed in the electron diffraction patterns of certain groups of materials (1,63).

From the time of von Laue, reciprocity, a subtle symmetry which, as it later emerged, is associated at a fundamental level with wave equations, has at various times occupied a great variety of crystallographers. John emphasised the importance of this symmetry to his students, two of whom, in a key paper, invoked Green functions to establish that reciprocity is inherent in Schrödinger's equation and applies to n-beam, not merely to two- beam, diffraction.8

John had always been particularly adept at exploiting this symmetry, a notable example being afforded by a particularly important, apparently simple and certainly short paper that he published in 1969. This generalized previous results and, in a stroke, revealed the relationship between images generated by transmission electron microscopy and those generated by scanning transmission microscopy, a matter much canvassed at that time (1,59).

The paper has an added significance in that it reveals the direction in which John's approach to research was turning, namely towards the development and utilization of a highly individual, generalized scanning instrument. In designing this instrument, John's formidable array of varied abilities were deployed in profusion; from workshop practice through solid state physics to light and electron optics, and to the mathematical physics of vibration and of quantum mechanics. These efforts laid the foundations for some of the seminal work that lay in the future.

At a conference on solid state chemistry in Scottsdale, Arizona in 1969, Cowley was approached by Professor Leroy Eyring about the possibility of establishing an electron microscopy group in the Center for Solid State Science at Arizona State University (ASU) in Tempe, near Phoenix in the United States. Cowley moved in 1970 to take up the Galvin Chair of Physics at ASU, taking with him from Australia his colleague Professor A. Strojnik, a mechanical workshop instrumentation specialist, four PhD students and several postdoctoral associates. Five other Melbourne physics PhD students also visited for shorter periods. Supported by ASU funding and an Area Development Award from the National Science Foundation, Cowley immediately appointed Dr S. Iijima as his postdoctoral assistant, purchased new electron microscopes, and rapidly established one of the leading international groups in electron microscopy and diffraction physics. John Spence, who completed his PhD in physics at Melbourne under Allan Spargo during Cowley's time there, was to join the group as a faculty member in 1977 following postdoctoral work in Oxford. In 1971, Cowley took on the co-editorship of Acta Crystallographica for about a decade and the directorship of the Electron Microscopy Society of America from 1971 to 1974. He served as the International Union of Crystallography's representative on the Commission for Solid State Physics from 1969 to 1978.

In 1970, more than ten years after Menter's first lattice images, the resolution of the best high-resolution electron microscope (HREM) images was about 0.34 nm. In Chicago, Albert Crewe had just demonstrated that individual, well-separated heavy atoms could be imaged using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), with the aim of applying the method to biology. (Cowley's reciprocity paper mentioned above had established the intimate connection between STEM and HREM, using Helmholtz's reciprocity theorem.) Cowley in 1959 had written perhaps the first paper to analyse the effect of multiple scattering on simple lattice images such as Menter's, using two-beam theory. In Australia, the CSIRO group led by A. Moodie had begun to demonstrate the usefulness of HREM for the observation of planar defects in oxide crystals, in which entire planes of atoms were missing, and to develop the appropriate imaging theory with full allowance for multiple scattering (dynamical) effects. Dr M. O'Keefe, who had previously worked with the CSIRO group, had also moved to ASU and was closely involved in the early HREM projects at ASU with Cowley and Iijima. Cowley was convinced that by improving the resolution of the microscopes to the atomic level for the much smaller spacings present in crystals, a large scientific payoff could be obtained in the solid state sciences. His view was that since most of the electronic, thermal, mechanical and magnetic properties of condensed matter – for example in first-order phase transitions, plasticity and non-stoichiometry – are controlled by defects such as atoms missing from the periodic arrangement of a crystal, it followed that HREM was the ideal tool for their study, and the challenge was to improve image resolution accordingly. He was one of the first to appreciate the full power of HREM in materials science, solid state chemistry and condensed matter physics, and he devoted extraordinarily energetic efforts to its development over several decades.

By taking advantage of a specially modified pole-piece fitted to a Japanese electron microscope, Iijima and Cowley were able to publish a series of papers in the early 1970s that both laid down the theoretical principles for high-resolution imaging of thin crystals in various modes, and applied this theory to Iijima's remarkable experimental images of defects in crystals.9 At that time, following earlier work in the late 1960s by Wadsley, Moodie, Bursill, Allpress, Sanders and co-workers at slightly lower resolution, it was realised that non-stoichiometry in complex oxides could be accommodated by planar faults. Non-stoichiometry refers to local deviations in the ratio of the amounts of the various types of atoms present in a crystal, usually taken to be constant for a given chemical formula. Planar faults, in addition to the point defects previously assumed, were discovered. These point defects may consist of individual missing atoms or groups of atoms. This finding had important implications for thermodynamics, for our understanding of the structural relationships between oxides, and for the mechanisms of oxygen uptake in minerals and catalysts. The instruments of that time provided 'unit-cell' resolution, so that the arrangement of the fundamental building blocks of many transition metal oxides could be determined in projection by high-resolution electron microscopy. Iijima and Cowley published the first clear two-dimensional image of Wadsley's defect (1,64), giving confidence in the earlier theoretical and experimental work of the Australian groups on the type of mistakes that can occur in the periodic arrangement of atoms in these crystals. This analysis of planar faults in oxides expanded rapidly in the hands of many experts around the world, and has continued since. Its origins at CSIRO and later ASU represent probably the first occasions on which scientifically significant high- resolution information had been extracted at the near-atomic scale from crystals by the new method of HREM 'lattice imaging'. Disorder of various kinds in oxides remained a theme in all Cowley's HREM work, including the classic study with Yagi using combined HREM images and point diffraction patterns of potassium ion ordering in KSbO3 in 1978 (1,91), which is typical of this interest of Cowley's. It shows Cowley's natural flair for the interpretation of diffuse scattering (which is a continuous function of scattering angle, rather than the sharp Bragg peaks normally generated by crystals) in terms of ordering in real space, and of the effects of multiple scattering on it. Following publication of a major review article on electron diffraction for structure analysis (1,56), it is clear that in these years Cowley's main interest had turned to imaging in all modes – transmission, reflection and scanning. He was to return to diffraction in new and imaginative ways in the 1980s, in the development of the nanodiffraction method.

In a remarkable burst of energy, with generous support from ASU, the National Science Foundation and other agencies, Cowley took on a large number of students at ASU and established new instrumentation and theory projects in several areas. At one point his group numbered more than a dozen PhD students. With A. Strojnik (and later D. Smith, another Melbourne graduate arriving from a post-doc at Cambridge), a 1-MeV STEM was constructed at ASU, intended for imaging thicker inorganic samples and, amongst other things, to allow high-resolution imaging of biological samples in air. (These were to be attached to a thin carbon membrane that formed the vacuum seal at the electron beam focus.) In other work in biology, Cowley had in 1971 (1,61) investigated the assumption of absorption contrast (rather than phase contrast), and the neglect of multiple scattering, in the tomographic transmission electron micoscopy work then just starting in Cambridge and elsewhere. Cowley's monograph Diffraction Physics, which first appeared in 1975 (4,1), is now in its third edition, and set the agenda for much of the physics of electron microscopy that was to follow. The book, which treats electron, X-ray and neutron diffraction, covers his main interests up to that time – the theory of multiple elastic and inelastic scattering, scattering from defects in crystals, HREM and STEM imaging, and the statistical mechanics of ordering in alloys. A second major novel instrumentation project started in the early 1970s with G. Hembree and others consisted of a field- emission reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) system that produced scanning reflection images and micro-diffraction patterns from atomically clean surfaces (1,152). This pioneering work occurred in the very early days of the field- emission electron source.

Just as mistakes in atomic positioning and species within otherwise periodic crystallline material may control its bulk properties, irregularities on the surfaces of crystals control the chemical interactions of crystals with their environment. This can be crtically important in areas of science as diverse as catalysis and corrosion. Yet prior to 1980 there were no methods that provided atomic-resolution images of extended crystalline surfaces. Cowley saw clearly, a decade before the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope, the potential power of a high- resolution imaging method in surface science, to complement the then-popular broad-beam Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and RHEED methods. He understood at an early stage how the difficult interpretation of LEED patterns might be assisted by a method that combined imaging and diffraction. With his student A. Moon, Cowley published a new theoretical approach to dynamical RHEED theory at about this time (1,65). Papers on the theory of RHEED for defective surfaces followed, a topic in which he remained interested for the rest of his life, and was to return to in his application (with L. M. Peng) of the multi-slice approach to the reflection geometry (1,167). This in turn supported experimental work on the Reflection Electron Microscopy (REM) imaging technique, which he developed rapidly from its earlier primitive form. Here an image is formed from a Bragg electron beam reflected at a low angle from a crystalline surface. In a series of papers, he established a dynamical (multiple-scattering) theory of REM imaging for defective surfaces, while his PhD students produced many of the most striking images of crystal surfaces using this method (1,167). Cleaved oxides and semiconductors and facetted gold spheres were studied, amongst other materials, at a resolution of about one nanometer. These images showed the predicted surface defects, including surface steps, in some cases terminating at emerging dislocations. The effects of image foreshortening, of elastic energy filtering, and of dynamic focusing were all investigated, while his elegant treatment (with L. M. Peng and P. Liu) of diffraction at a surface step has since been widely adopted (1,190). His own experimental work at this time produced the scanning reflection electron microscopy (SREM) method, which is conveniently combined with reflection microdiffraction analysis (1,136; 1,257). Using this, by combining reflection microdiffraction patterns from nanometer-sized areas with the corresponding scanning images, he was able to explain many of the diffuse scattering effects seen in RHEED (1,226), and to distinguish, for example, streaking due to surface steps from that due to inelastic scattering. This work led to studies on the surface resonance effect with his students Z. L. Wang, L. M. Peng and others (1,214). His earliest work on REM began during a visit to ASU from Professor K. Yagi in the early 1970s. Yagi and his student Takayanagi were to use similar methods to powerful effect in Japan soon afterwards in solving the famous silicon (111) (7 × 7) reconstruction, often described at that time as the last great problem in surface crystallography.

Cowley's early paper on STEM/TEM reciprocity kindled an enthusiasm for the STEM mode that remained to the end of his life. (In simplest form, this reciprocity theorem allows ray-paths to be reversed in an optical system, suggesting interesting new scientific instrument designs and signals to be detected.) During the 1970s, Cowley also produced a series of papers on novel imaging modes in STEM (1,88), culminating in the arrival in 1978 of a Vacuum Generators HB-5 STEM electron microscope, funded by his National Science Foundation grant, that he personally operated from that time until the last week of his life. Cowley designed an ingenious optical-image dissection device that converted electron nanodiffraction patterns produced by a vacuum-coupled image intensifier to optical images, portions of which could be led off to various detectors, with a flexible masking system (3,27). A typical project (with G. Butler, M. Strahm and later G. Fan, from 1980) using this system involved the automated collection of many coherent microdiffraction patterns from nanometer-sized areas of thin glassy films, in order to characterize their structure. For the problem of short and medium range order in glasses, Cowley was convinced of the value of nanodiffaction for the extraction of information on angular correlations between bond angles, thus going beyond the limitations of the radial distribution function commonly used (3,27). In other work at this time with Spence, the theory of atomic resolution imaging by STEM in thin crystals was elaborated (1,93), emphasising the role of interference between overlapping coherent covergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) orders, an effect previously detected by Dowell and Goodman.10 This dynamical 'ptychography' (from the Greek 'to fold') results when a cone of illuminating rays is used so large that the Bragg diffraction orders overlap and interfere. The analysis of coherent nanodiffraction patterns from thin crystals (1,104) soon led also to his work on in-line electron holography, from which he developed an elegantly simple relationship between in-line holograms in STEM, shadow images and the Talbot self- imaging properties of thin crystals (1,250). This work in turn led to the development of the theory of electron Ronchigrams in the early 1980s (1,165). These electron interferograms, similar to those used to characterize astronomical optical elements, have become the standard method of automated alignment and aberration measurement in modern aberration-corrected magnetic lenses. The recent attainment of sub-Ångstrom-resolution STEM imaging depends heavily on Cowley's development and analysis of these patterns.

The early 1980s were an exciting time for the ASU group, with the influx of several new faculty appointments and outstanding postdoctoral researchers in Cowley's field. These appointments by a supportive ASU administration followed the National Science Foundation's award in 1979 of about $US1,500,000 (for three years) for a continuing grant for a regional and later national instrumentation facility for high-resolution electron microscopy at ASU, directed by Cowley. Ondrej Krivanek, David Smith, Ray Carpenter and Peter Rez, as new appointments, worked with existing professors Leroy Eyring, Peter Buseck and John Spence, and later John Venables, on lively management meetings of 'the facility', in which many new scientific projects were devised and funded. These spanned the scientific interests of the faculty, from the earth sciences to solid state physics and chemistry and surface science. Additional supportive appointments for tenure-track full-time researchers made in the Center for Solid State Science included G. Hembree and later M. Scheinfein. Postdocs included J. Tafto, Y. Bando, N. Long, D. Shindo and D. Veblen, amongst many others. The mission of the facility, the development and application of HREM, required an extensive user programme, an annual international conference ('workshop'), and a winter school each year to teach the practical methods of HREM. Cowley took on this considerable workload with the support of the management committee and particularly that of the laboratory manager John Wheatley and his assistants, who were responsible for the upkeep of the transmission electron microscopes of various types, eventually eight in number. The dedication of the four technical staff of the facility was crucial to its success, which saw a continuous stream of national and international visitors and microscope users that has continued ever since. The idea was to teach the methods of HREM to scientists in universities, national laboratories and companies in the USA and elsewhere, to develop new related techniques, and to apply them to all areas of solid state and surface science. The ambitious aim was to explain the properties of matter in terms of the atomic structures and processes seen in the electron microscopes, by combining these experimental results with a vigorous programme of theoretical analysis. This was Cowley's bold vision during the 1980s, during which the resolution of the transmission electron microscopy instruments improved from about 0.26 to 1.4 nm. In most cases this was not quite sufficient to resolve individual columns of atoms in projection, so that a considerable theoretical effort was devoted to image interpretation. Unlike other groups, Cowley's approach included all multiple scattering effects from the beginning. Following Iijima's return to Japan, David Smith in later years took on the job of running the schools and workshops. Following Cowley's death in May 2004, the facility has been re-named the J. M. Cowley Center for Electron Microscopy and is directed by Smith.

Cowley fostered a vigorous programme of instrumentation development – early versions of what would later become the commercial Gatan electron energy loss spectrometer, and an electronic imaging system also taken up by Gatan, were developed by Krivenek and Spence, respectively, at that time. Much more ambitious projects, later in the 1980s, included a special ultra-high-vacuum version of the Vacuum Generators field-emission STEM instrument (1,227) dedicated to imaging and anlaysis of surfaces, and an ultra-high- voltage transmission electron microscope developed with the Gatan company. The design and development of these two novel instruments involved much detailed collaboration between company and ASU researchers (especially Cowley, Venables, Long, Hembree and Krivanek). The Auger imaging system on the Vacuum Generators, for example, developed by Venables and co-workers and based on a novel magnetic extraction field that collected Auger electrons generated by the sub-nanometer probe over a very large solid angle, subsequently produced record-breaking 1-nm resolution Auger images.

The annual workshops, first held in the Arizona desert at Castle Hot Springs and later at Wickenburg, were memorable events. It was a remarkable achievement of Cowley's to attract to the Arizona desert, each winter for well over a decade, leading scientists from all around the world in fields other than electron microscopy for a small, specialized workshop. The workshops, which quickly gained a reputation for scientific excitement and high quality, covered some aspect of condensed matter science to which it was thought that electron microscopy could contribute, with papers subsequently collected together and published in the journal Ultramicroscopy. Topics covered a wide range, from metal clusters to the imaging of clean surfaces, solid state chemistry, diffraction and channelling methods, interfaces, ceramics, semiconductors, mineralogy and catalysts.

The arrival of several groups of first- rate Chinese PhD students under the China–United States Postgraduate Exchange Agreement programme in the mid-1980s had a stimulating effect on the group comparable only to the original influx of Australian students fifteen years earlier. Projects included theory and practice of REM and SREM imaging (with T. Hsu, N. Yao and L. M. Peng), and energy- loss spectroscopy in the reflection mode (with Z. L. Wang), and work on REM and SREM imaging of steps (1,214). In the STEM, Cowley also embarked on an analysis of planar faults by coherent microdiffraction in the transmission geometry with Zhu and Pan (1,135). The method was applied to antiphase domains in copper- gold alloys and to platelets in diamond, and was later extended to the faulting found in small metal particles and catalysts. Cowley's interest in modulated, intergrowth and incommensurate structures continued in work with N. Tanaka, culminating in his organization of an international conference on this topic in Hawaii and a subsequent Gordon conference.

The publication by Pennycook and Boatner in 1988 of high-resolution STEM images using high-angle scattering, as proposed by Howie, led to a burst of activity at ASU and Cornell, in which the effects of temperature and other effects on the thermal diffuse and Bragg scattering used to form these images was investigated by Cowley, Liu, Wang and others (1,231). The final years of Cowley's career were devoted to microdiffraction studies of individual nanotubes (1,322), to work on ferroelectrics, to an idea he and Smirnov had of using strings of atoms as electron lenses (1,305), and to work with M. Scheinfein and M. Mankos on electron holography of magnetic materials (1,283). His last project returned him to his early interest in the structure of ferritin (1,331). Cowley became convinced from nanodiffraction evidence that the conventionally accepted form of the iron oxide core in ferritin was incorrect, and he proposed mechanisms for oxygen uptake based on his novel structure, relevant to Alzheimer's disease. His belief in the unique power of coherent electron nanodiffraction for the study of various forms of disorder in crystals and glasses, and his ability to record and interpret these patterns in terms of correlations amongst atom positions, remained to the end (1,324).

Cowley received many honors during his lifetime. These included the Edgeworth David Medal, the Research Medal of the Royal Society of Victoria, the Warren Award of the American Crystallographic Association (with S. Iijima), the Distinguished Scientist Award of the Microscopy Society of America and the Ewald Prize (with A. Moodie) of the International Union of Crystallography. He was a Fellow of the American Physical Society, of the Royal Society of Victoria, and of the Institute of Physics, and a member of the US National Committee for Crystallography. He was elected a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science in 1961 and of the Royal Society of London in 1979.

John's life was almost entirely devoted to his family and his work, and to the extensive international travel it involved during which, in China, Japan, Europe or Australia, he would frequently encounter the extended family of his many devoted ex-students. Apart from classical music, his main hobby was painting in oils; a display of his fine work was mounted at a memorial meeting held in his honour at ASU in mid-2004, attended by his daughters. Throughout his career in Melbourne and Arizona, John Cowley's calm confidence, scientific vision and sustained industry were an inspiration to those about him. John continued experimental work to the last day of his life. A visit to his office always left the visitor stimulated with new ideas and inspiration – always encouraging, he had a characteristic ability to take a student's imperfectly formed ideas and to turn them towards new and exciting possibilities with his familiar manipulations and facility in analysis. The intimate relationship between experiment and his intuitive theoretical insight, combined with his unflappable manner, his generosity with ideas and support for others, and his unflagging conviction that electron scattering and imaging were the most powerful tools for understanding atomic processes in solids – these were the characteristics that have left so many of his colleagues in his debt. He is survived by his daughters Jillian and Deborah and his devoted wife Roberta.

References

1.     A. F. Moodie, 'Reciprocity and shape functions in multiple scattering diagrams', Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 27 (1972), 437–440.
2.     P. Goodman and A. F. Moodie, 'Numerical evaluation of N-beam wave-functions in electron scattering by the multi-slice method', Acta Cryst. A30 (1974), 280–290.
3.     A. D. Wadsley, Rev. Pure Appl. Chem. 5 (1955), 165–193.
4.     A. D. Wadsley and S. Andersson, in Perspectives in Structural Chemistry, Vol. 3.1, ed. J. D. Dunitz and J. A. Ibers (New York: Wiley).
5.     J. G. Allpress, J. V. Sanders and A. D. Wadsley, 'Multiple phase formation in binary system Nb205-W03. 6. Electron microscopic observation and evaluation of non-periodic shear structures', Acta Cryst. B25 (1969), 1156.
6.     J. G. Allpress, E. A. Hewat, A. F. Moodie and J. V. Sanders, 'n-Beam Lattice Images. 1 Experimental and computed images from W4Nb26O77', Acta Cryst. A28 (1972), 528–536.
7.     E. A. Chidzey, MSc thesis, University of Melbourne, 1970.
8.     A. P. Pogany and P.S. Turner, 'Reciprocity in electron diffraction and microscopy', Acta Cryst. A24 (1968), 103–109.
9.     S. Iijima, 'High resolution electron microscopy of crystal lattice of titanium-niobium oxide', J. Appl. Phys. 42 (1971), 5891–5893.
10.   W. C. T. Dowell and P. Goodman, 'The influence of source size on CBED patterns', Optik 45 (1976), 93–96.

Bibliography

1. Papers in refereed scientific journals

1.     J. M. Cowley and A. L. G. Rees, 'Refraction effects in electron diffraction', Nature 158 (1946), 550–552.
2.     J. M. Cowley and A. L. G. Rees, 'Refraction effects in electron diffraction', Proc. Phys. Soc. 59 (1947), 287–302.
3.     J. M. Cowley and M. S. Patterson, 'X-ray diffraction studies of yielding in mild steel', Nature 159 (1947), 846–847.
4.     J. M. Cowley and T. R. Scott, 'The nature of precipitated sodium fluo-aluminates', J. Am. Chem. Soc. 69 (1947), 2596–2598.
5.     J. M. Cowley and T. R. Scott, 'Basic fluorides of aluminum', J. Am. Chem. Soc. 70 (1948), 105–109.
6.     N. S. Bayliss, J. M. Cowley, J. L. Farrant and G. L. Miles, 'The thermal decomposition of synthetic and natural alunite: investigation by X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction and electron microscope methods', Aust. J. Sci. Res. A1 (1948), 343–350.
7.     J. M. Cowley, 'Electron diffraction by fatty acid layers on metal surfaces', Trans. Farad. Soc. 44 (1948), 60–68.
8.     J. M. Cowley and J. L. Symonds, 'Electron diffraction and rectification from silicon and pyrite surfaces', Trans. Farad. Soc. 44 (1948), 53–60.
9.     J. M. Cowley, 'X-ray measurement of order in single crystals of Cu3Au', J. Appl. Phys. 21 (1950), 24–30.
10.   J. M. Cowley, 'An Approximate theory of order in alloys', Phys. Rev. 77 (1950), 669–675.
11.   J. M. Cowley, A. L. G. Rees and J. A. Spink, 'The morphology of zinc oxide smoke particles', Proc. Phys. Soc. 64 (1951), 638–649.
12.   J. M. Cowley and A. L. G. Rees, 'Secondary elastic scattering in electron diffraction', Proc. Phys. Soc. 64 (1951), 609–619.
13.   J. M. Cowley, 'Structure analysis of single crystals by electron diffraction. I. Techniques', Acta Cryst. 6 (1953), 516–522.
14.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron diffraction study of hydrogen bonds in boric acid', Nature 171 (1953), 440–442.
15.   J. M. Cowley, 'Structure analysis of single crystals by electron diffraction. II Disordered boric acid structure', Acta Cryst. 6 (1953), 522–529.
16.   J. M. Cowley, 'Structure analysis of single crystals by electron diffraction. III. Modifications of alumina', Acta Cryst. 6 (1953), 846–853.
17.   J. M. Cowley, 'Stacking faults in gamma-alumina', Acta Cryst. 6 (1953), 53–54.
18.   J. M. Cowley and A. L. G. Rees, 'Design of a high-resolution electron diffraction camera', J. Sci. Inst. 30 (1953), 33–36.
19.   J. M. Cowley, 'A new microscopy principle', Proc. Phys. Soc. 66 (1953), 1096–1100.
20.   J. M. Cowley, 'Intensity anomalies in electron diffraction patterns of CuO', J. Electrochem. Soc. 101 (1954), 277–280.
21.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron diffraction patterns of CuO', J. Appl. Phys. 27 (1956), 422.
22.   J. M. Cowley, 'A modified Patterson function', Acta Cryst. 9 (1956), 397–398.
23.   J. M. Cowley, 'Stereoscopic three-dimensional structure analysis', Acta Cryst. 9 (1956), 399–401.
24.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron diffraction study of the structure of basic lead carbonate, 2PbCo3.Pb(OH)2', Acta Cryst. 9 (1956), 391–396.
25.   J. M. Cowley and J. A. Ibers, 'The structure of some ferric chloride-graphite compounds', Acta Cryst. 9 (1956), 421–431.
26.   J. M. Cowley, 'On order-disorder structures', Acta Cryst. 10 (1957), 141.
27.   J. M. Cowley, P. Goodman and A. L. G. Rees, 'Crystal structure analysis from fine-structure in electron diffraction patterns', Acta Cryst. 10 (1957), 19–25.
28.   J. M. Cowley and A. F. Moodie, 'Fourier images, I. The point source', Proc. Phys. Soc. B 70 (1957), 486–496.
29.   J. M. Cowley and A. F. Moodie, 'Fourier images, II. The out-of-focus patterns', Proc. Phys. Soc. B 70 (1957), 497–504.
30.   J. M. Cowley and A. F. Moodie, 'Fourier images, III. Finite sources', Proc. Phys. Soc. B 70 (1957), 505–513.
31.   J. M. Cowley and A. F. Moodie, 'The scattering of electrons by atoms and crystals. I. A new theoretical approach', Acta Cryst. 10 (1957), 609–619.
32.   J. M. Cowley and A. F. Moodie, 'A new formulation of scalar diffraction theory for restricted aperture', Proc. Phys. Soc. 71 (1958), 533–545.
33.   J. M. Cowley and A. F. Moodie, 'The scattering of electrons by atoms and crystals. II. The effect of finite source size', Acta Cryst. 12 (1959), 353–359.
34.   J. M. Cowley and A. F. Moodie, 'The scattering of electrons by atoms and crystals. III. Single-crystal diffraction patterns', Acta Cryst. 12 (1959), 360–367.
35.   J. M. Cowley, 'The electron-optical imaging of crystal lattices', Acta Cryst. 12 (1959), 367–375.
36.   J. M. Cowley and A. F. Moodie, 'Electron diffraction and imaging effects for superimposed thin crystals', Acta Cryst. 12 (1959), 423–428.
37.   J. M. Cowley, 'Short- and long-range order parameters in disordered solid solutions', Phys. Rev. 120 (1960), 1648–1657.
38.   J. M. Cowley and A. F. Moodie, 'Fourier images, IV. Phase gratings', Proc. Phys. Soc. 76 (1960), 378–384.
39.   J. M. Cowley, A. F. Moodie, Shizuo Miyake, Satio Takagi and Fuminori Fujimoto, 'The extinction rule for reflections in symmetrical electron diffraction spot patterns', Acta Cryst. 14 (1961), 87–88.
40.   J. M. Cowley and A. F. Moodie, 'Out-of- focus electron microscope images of edges of crystal lattices', Nature 189 (1961), 477–478.
41.   J. M. Cowley, 'Diffraction intensities from bent crystals', Acta Cryst. 14 (1961), 920–927.
42.   J. M. Cowley and A. Goswami, 'Electron diffraction patterns from montmorillonite', Acta Cryst. 14 (1961), 1071–1079.
43.   J. M. Cowley and A. F. Moodie, 'The scattering of electrons by thin crystals', J. Phys. Soc. Japan 17, Supplement B-II (1962), 86–88.
44.   J. M. Cowley and Shigeya Kuwabara, 'Electron diffraction intensities from polycrystalline materials containing heavy atoms', Acta Cryst. 15 (1962), 260–270.
45.   F. Aragon de la Cruz and J. M. Cowley, 'Structure of graphitic oxide', Nature 196 (1962), 468–469.
46.   F. Aragon de la Cruz and J. M. Cowley, 'An electron diffraction study of graphitic oxide', Acta Cryst. 16 (1963), 531–534.
47.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron diffraction study of evaporated beryllia', Nature 204 (1964), 1082.
48.   J. M. Cowley, 'The derivation of structural information from absorption effects in X-ray diffraction', Acta Cryst. 17 (1964), 33–40.
49.   J. M. Cowley, 'Short-range order and long- range order parameters', Phys. Rev. 138 (1965), A1384–A1389.
50.   J. M. Cowley, 'Atomic ordering: short-range order in alloys', J. Aust. Inst. Metals 11 (1966), 258–263.
51.   J. M. Cowley, 'Irradiation effects in beryllia and zinc oxide', Acta Cryst. 21 (1966), 192–196.
52.   J. M. Cowley and A. P. Pogany, 'Diffuse scattering in electron diffraction patterns. I. General theory and computational methods', Acta Cryst. A24 (1968), 109–116.
53.   J. M. Cowley, 'Diffuse scattering in electron diffraction patterns. II. Short-range order scattering', Acta Cryst. A24 (1968), 329-.
54.   J. M. Cowley, 'The channelling of fast charged particles through crystals', Phys. Lett. A 26 (1968), 623–625.
55.   J. M. Cowley, 'Kinematical diffraction from solid solutions with short-range order and size effect', Acta Cryst. A24 (1968), 557–563.
56.   J. M. Cowley, 'The determination of structure factors from dynamical effects in electron diffraction', Acta Cryst. A25 (1969), 129–134.
57.   P. S. Turner and J. M. Cowley, 'The effects of n-beam dynamical diffraction on electron diffraction intensities from polycrystalline materials', Acta Cryst. A25 (1969), 475–481.
58.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron diffraction intensities of Kossel and Kikuchi lines', Zeits. f. angewandte Physik 26 (1969), 149–154.
59.   J. M. Cowley, 'Image contrast in transmission scanning electron microscope', Appl. Phys. Lett. 15 (1969), 58–59.
60.   J. M. Cowley and S. Kuwabara, 'Information on excited states of crystals from inelastic electron diffraction intensities', Phys. Lett. 34A (1971), 135–136.
61.   G. R. Grinton and J. M. Cowley, 'Phase and amplitude contrast in electron micrographs of biological material', Optik 34, 221 (1971), 221–233.
62.   David J. Smith and J. M. Cowley, 'Line patterns in wide-angle convergent beam electron diffraction', J. Appl. Cryst. 4 (1971), 482–487.
63.   J. R. Castles, J. M. Cowley and A. E. C. Spargo, 'Short-range ordering of vacancies and Fermi surface of TiO', Acta Cryst. A27 (1971), 376–383.
64.   J. M. Cowley and Sumio Iijima, 'Electron microscope image contrast for thin crystals', Zeit. f. Naturforsch. 27A, 445 (1972), 445–451.
65.   A. R. Moon and J. M. Cowley, 'Medium energy electron diffraction', J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 9 (1972), 649–651.
66.   J. R. Sellar and J. M. Cowley, 'Resolution and contrast in high voltage scanning electron microscopy', in 'Scanning Electron Microscopy, 1973', ed. Om Johari, IIT Research Inst., Chicago (1973), 243–250.
67.   J. M. Cowley and H. Shuman, 'Electron diffraction from a statistically rough surface', Surface Sci. 38 (1973), 53–59.
68.   J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution dark-field electron microscopy: Useful approximations', Acta Cryst. A29 (1973), 529–536.
69.   J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution dark-field electron microscopy. II. Short-range order in crystals', Acta Cryst. A29 (1973), 537–540.
70.   P. L. Fejes, Sumio Iijima and J. M. Cowley, 'Periodicity in thickness of electron microscopy crystal lattice images', Acta Cryst. A29 (1973), 710–714.
71.   Shigeya Kuwabara and J. M. Cowley, 'The effects of energy losses in aluminum on electron diffraction intensities', J. Phys. Soc. Japan 34 (1973), 1575–1582.
72.   Sumio Iijima, J. M. Cowley and Gabrielle Donnay, 'High resolution electron microscopy of tourmaline crystals', Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographishe Mitteilungen 20 (1973), 216–224.
73.   W. H. Massover and J. M. Cowley, 'The ultrastructure of ferritin macromolecules. II. Lattice structure of the core crystallites', Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 70 (1973), 3847–3851.
74.   J. M. Cowley, W. H. Massover and Bing K. Jap, 'The focussing of high resolution dark- field electron microscope images', Optik 40 (1974), 42–54.
75.   J. M. Cowley, David J. Smith and H. T. Pearce- Pearcy, 'The optimization of STEM contrast for thick specimens', in 'Scanning Microscopy/1975', ed. Om Johari, IIT Research Institute, Chicago (1975), 71–78.
76.   J. M. Cowley, 'Coherent and incoherent imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope', J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 8 (1975), L77–L79.
77.   J. M. Cowley, J. L. Albain, G. G. Hembree, P. E. Højlund Nielsen, F. A. Koch, J. D. Landry and H. Shuman, 'System for reflection electron microscopy and electron diffraction at intermediate energies', Rev. Sci. Instr. 46 (1975), 826–829.
78.   David J. Smith and J. M. Cowley, 'Aperture contrast in thick amorphous specimens using scanning transmission electron microscopy', Ultramicroscopy 1 (1975), 127–136.
79.   J. M. Cowley and P. E. Højlund Nielsen, 'Magnification variation in electron microscopy using diffracted beams', Ultramicroscopy 1 (1975), 145–150.
80.   H. T. Pearce-Pearcy and J. M. Cowley, 'On the use of energy filtering to increase the contrast of STEM images of thick biological materials', Optik 44, 3 (1976), 273–288.
81.   P. E. Højlund Nielsen and J. M. Cowley, 'Surface imaging using diffracted electrons', Surface Sci. 54 (1976), 340–354.
82.   J. M. Cowley and Bing K. Jap, 'The use of diffraction information to augment STEM imaging', in 'Scanning Electron Microscopy/1976', ed. Om Johari, IIT Research Institute, Chicago (1976), 377–384.
83.   J. M. Cowley, 'Diffraction by crystals with planar faults. I. General theory', Acta Cryst. A32 (1976), 83–87.
84.   J. M. Cowley, 'Diffraction by crystals with planar faults. II. Magnesium fluorogermanate', Acta Cryst. A32 (1976), 88–91.
85.   J. D. Landry, G. G. Hembree, P. E. Højlund Nielsen and J. M. Cowley, 'SEM imaging of crystal surfaces using diffracted beams', in 'Scanning Electron Microscopy/1976', ed. Om Johari, IIT Research Institute, Chicago (1976), 239–246.
86.   A. J. Skarnulis, Sumio Iijima and J. M. Cowley, 'Refinement of the defect structure of 'GeNb9O25', by high resolution electron microscopy', Acta Cryst. A32 (1976), 799–805.
87.   J. M. Cowley, 'The extension of scanning transmission electron microscopy by use of diffraction information', Ultramicroscopy 1 (1976), 255–262.
88.   J. M. Cowley, 'Scanning transmission electron microscopy of thin specimens', Ultramicroscopy 2 (1976), 3–16.
89.   Shigeya Kuwabara and J. M. Cowley, 'Calculation of inelastic scattering effect in the bend contour electron microscopic images of aluminum single crystals by n-slice approximation', J. Phys. Soc. Japan 42 (1977), 1973–1979.
90.   S. Iijima and J. M. Cowley, 'Studies of ordering using HREM', J. de Phys. 38, Colloque C7 (1977), 135–144.
91.   P. M. Fields and J. M. Cowley, 'Computed electron microscope images of atomic defects in F.C.C. metals', Acta Cryst. A34 (1978), 103–112.
92.   Katsumichi Yagi and J. M. Cowley, 'Electron microscopic study of ordering of potassium ions in cubic KSbO3', Acta Cryst. A34 (1978), 625–634.
93.   J. C. H. Spence and J. M. Cowley, 'Lattice imaging in STEM', Optik 50, 2 (1978), 129–142.
94.   J. M. Cowley and A. Y. Au, 'Image signals and detector configurations in STEM', in 'Scanning Electron Microscopy, 1978', ed. Om Johari, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Inc., Illinois, Vol. I (1978), 53–60.
95.   J. M. Cowley and Yu-Jeng Chang, 'Diffraction by small crystals on a single crystal substrate', Surface Sci. 72 (1978), 379–389.
96.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron Microscopy', Anal. Chem. 50 (1978), 76R–80R.
97.   J. M. Cowley and Andrew Y. Au, 'Diffraction by crystals with planar faults. III. Structure analysis using microtwins', Acta Cryst. A34 (1978), 738–743.
98.   J. M. Cowley, 'The configuration of atom defects from High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy', J. Nucl. Mat. 69 & 70 (1978), 228–239.
99    G. G. Hembree and J. M. Cowley, 'Electron channelling and microdiffraction from crystal surfaces', in Scanning Electron Microscopy, 1979, Vol, I, ed. Om Johari, SEM Inc., AMF O'Hare, Illinois (1979), 145–152.
100. H. Brigette Krause, J. M. Cowley and J. C. Wheatley, 'Short-range ordering in PbMgNbO', Acta Cryst. A35 (1979), 1015–1017.
101. J. M. Cowley, 'Adjustment of STEM instrument by use of shadow images', Ultramicroscopy 4 (1979), 413–418.
102. J. M. Cowley, J. C. Wheatley and William L. Kehl, 'High resolution electron microscopy of LaPO4 catalysts', J. Catalysis (1979), 185–194.
103. G. G. Hembree, J. M. Cowley and M. A. Otooni, 'The oxidation of copper studied by electron scattering techniques', Oxid. Met. 13 (1979), 331–351.
104. J. M. Cowley and J. C. H. Spence, 'Innovative imaging and microdiffraction in STEM', Ultramicroscopy 3 (1979), 433–438.
105. J. M. Cowley and P. M. Fields, 'Dynamical theory for electron scattering from crystal defects and disorder', Acta Cryst. A35 (1979), 28–37.
106. J. M. Cowley, 'Coherent interference in convergent beam electron diffraction and shadow imaging', Ultramicroscopy 4 (1979), 435–450.
107. J. M. Cowley and R. E. Bridges, 'Phase and amplitude contrast in electron microscopy of stained biological objects', Ultramicroscopy 4 (1979), 419–429.
108. J. C. H. Spence, J. M. Cowley and R. Gronsky, 'The effect of lens aberrations on lattice images of spinodally decomposed alloys', Ultramicroscopy 4 (1979), 429–433.
109. J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution studies of crystals using STEM', Chem. Scripta 14 (1978–1979), 33–38.
110. J. M. Cowley, 'Direct imaging of atoms in crystals and molecules: Status and prospects for physics', Chem. Scripta 14 (1978–79), 279–285.
111. G. Schiffmaker, H. Dexpert, P. Caro and J. M. Cowley, 'Elliptical electron diffraction patterns from thin films of 'turbostratic' graphite', J. Microsc. Spect. Elec. 5 (1980), 729–734.
112. J. M. Cowley, 'A facility for high resolution electron microscopy', B. Electron Microsc. Soc. Am. 10, 1 (1980), 20–24.
113. J. M. Cowley, 'Interference effects in a STEM instrument', Micron 11 (1980), 229–233.
114. J. M. Cowley, M. Strahm and J. H. Butler, 'Recording and processing of STEM images', Micron 11 (1980), 285–286.
115. J. M. Cowley, 'The prospects for high resolution imaging', Micron 11 (1980), 223–227.
116. J. M. Cowley, 'Optical processing of diffraction information in STEM', in Scanning Electron Microscopy/1980, ed. Om Johari, SEM Inc., AMF O'Hare, Illinois, Vol. 1 (1980), 61–72.
117. J. M. Cowley and M. Disko, 'Fresnel diffraction in a coherent convergent electron beam', Ultramicroscopy 5 (1980), 469–477.
118. Fumio Watari and J. M. Cowley, 'The study of oxide formation on (001) (011) (111) and (113) surfaces of Cr thin films using STEM- microdiffraction methods', Surface Sci. 105 (1981), 240–264.
119. J. M. Cowley and D. J. Walker, 'Reconstruction from in-line holograms by digital processing', Ultramicroscopy 6 (1981), 71–76.
120. P. S. Turner and J. M. Cowley, 'STEM and CTEM observations of interference between Laue- and Bragg-diffracted electrons in images of polyhedral crystals', Ultramicroscopy 6 (1981), 125–138.
121. R. A. Roy, R. Messier and J. M. Cowley, 'Fine structure of gold particles in thin films prepared by metal insulator co-sputtering', Thin Solid Films 79 (1981), 207–215.
122. J. M. Cowley, 'Coherent interference effects in STEM and CBED', Ultramicroscopy 7 (1981), 19–26.
123. J. M. Cowley and J. C. H. Spence, 'Convergent beam electron microdiffraction from small crystals', Ultramicroscopy 6 (1981), 359–366.
124. J. M. Cowley, 'Coherent convergent beam microdiffraction', Kristallografiya 26 (1981) 965–973 (in Russian); Soviet Phys.–Crystallog. 26 (1981), 549–533 (in English).
125. J. M. Cowley, 'Electron Microdiffraction studies of the potential field at crystal surfaces', Ultramicroscopy 7 (1981), 181–188.
126. P. Goodman, J. M. Cowley and A. Higgs, 'Inelastic scattering contrast in beam-rocking electron diffraction experiments', Ultramicroscopy 6 (1981), 377–382.
127. J. M. Cowley and R. A. Roy, 'Microdiffraction of gold microcrystals', in Scanning Electron Microscopy 1981, ed. Om Johari, SEM, Inc., AMF O'Hare (Chicago) (1982), 143–152.
128. J. M. Cowley, 'Surface energies and surface structure of small crystals studied by use of a STEM instrument', Surface Sci. 114 (1982), 587–600.
129. J. M. Cowley, 'Energy losses of fast electrons at crystal surfaces', Phys Rev. B 25, 2 (1982), 1401–1404.
130. J. M. Cowley, 'The accomplishments and prospects of high resolution imaging methods,' Ultramicroscopy 8 (1982), 1–12.
131. Jing Zhu and J. M. Cowley, 'Microdiffraction from anti-phase boundaries in Cu3Au', Acta Cryst. A38 (1982), 718–724.
132. J. M. Cowley, 'Microdiffraction, STEM imaging and ELS at crystal surfaces', Ultramicroscopy 9 (1982), 231–236.
133. P. R. Buseck and J. M. Cowley, 'Modulated and intergrowth structures in minerals and electron microscopy methods for their study', Am. Mineral. 68 (1983), 18–40.
134. J. M. Cowley, 'Scanning transmission electron diffraction and microdiffraction techniques', B. Mater. Sci. 6 (1984), 477–490.
135. Jing Zhu and J. M. Cowley, 'Microdiffraction from stacking faults and twin boundaries in F.C.C. crystals', J. Appl. Cryst. 16 (1983), 171–175.
136. J. M. Cowley, 'The STEM approach to the imaging of surfaces and small particles', J. Microsc. 129 (1983), 253–261.
137. J. M. Cowley, 'Microdiffraction in a STEM instrument and application to surface structures', in Scanning Electron Microscopy/1982, ed. Om Johari, SEM Inc., Chicago, Vol. 1 (1983), 51–60.
138. J. M. Cowley and Z.-C. Kang, 'STEM imaging and analysis of surfaces', Ultramicroscopy 11 (1983), 131–140.
139. Tung Hsu and J. M. Cowley, 'Reflection electron microscopy (REM) of F.C.C. metals', Ultramicroscopy 11 (1983), 239–250.
140. J. H. Butler and J. M. Cowley, 'Phase contrast imaging using a scanning transmission electron microscope', Ultramicroscopy 12 (1983), 39–50.
141. W. Bryan Monosmith and J. M. Cowley, 'Pattern recognition techniques for the analysis of electron microdiffraction patterns', Ultramicroscopy 12 (1983), 51–58.
142. J. M. Cowley, 'STEM imaging of thick specimens with off-axis detectors', J. Electron Micr. Tech. 1 (1984), 83–94.
143  W. Bryan Monosmith and J. M. Cowley, 'Electron microdiffraction from very small gold particles', Ultramicroscopy 12 (1984), 177–184.
144. C.-S. Tan and J. M. Cowley, 'Surface potential study of Au(111) surfaces', Ultramicroscopy 12 (1984), 333–344.
145. J. M. Cowley and K. D. Neumann, 'The alignment of gold particles on MgO crystal surfaces', Surface Sci. 145 (1984), 301–312.
146. J. M. Cowley, 'Microdiffraction and STEM of interfaces', Ultramicroscopy 14 (1984), 27–36.
147. Elizabeth A. Lodge and J. M. Cowley, 'The surface diffusion of silver under high resolution imaging conditions', Ultramicroscopy 13 (1984), 215–226.
148. Tung Hsu, Sumio Iijima and J. M. Cowley, 'Atomic and other structures of cleaved GaAs (111) surfaces', Surface Sci. 137 (1984), 551–569.
149. J. M. Cowley, 'Nanodiffraction: electron diffraction from nanometer size regions', Denshi-Kembikyo 18 (1984), 128–133 (in Japanese).
150. J. M. Cowley, Mohamed A. Osman and P. Humble, 'Nanodiffraction from platelet defects in diamond', Ultramicroscopy 15 (1984), 311–318.
151. J. M. Cowley and Lian-mao Peng, 'The image contrast of surface steps in reflection electron microscopy', Ultramicroscopy 16 (1985), 59–67.
152. C. Elibol, H.-J. Ou, G. G. Hembree and J. M. Cowley, 'An improved instrument for medium energy electron diffraction and microscopy of surfaces', Rev. Sci. Instr. 56 (1985), 1215–1219.
153. J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution electron microscopy and microdiffraction', Ultramicroscopy 18 (1985), 11–17.
154. Jing Zhu, H. Q. Ye and J. M. Cowley, 'Effect of anti-phase domain boundaries on microdiffraction: Computer simulation', Ultramicroscopy 18 (1985), 111–116.
155. N. Tanaka and J. M. Cowley, 'Studies of planar defects in silver plate-like crystals by CBED and HRTEM techniques', Mater. Res. 41 (1985), 155–162.
156. Tung Hsu and J. M. Cowley, 'Surface characterization by reflection electron microscopy (REM)', Mater. Res. 41 (1985), 121–127.
157. Guo-You Fan and J. M. Cowley, 'Auto-correlations analysis of high resolution electron micrographs of near-amorphous thin films', Ultramicroscopy 17 (1985), 345–355.
158. N. Tanaka and J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution electron microscopy of disordered lithium ferrites', Ultramicroscopy 17 (1985), 365–377.
159. Jing Zhu and J. M. Cowley, 'Study of early- stage precipitation in Al-4%Cu by microdiffraction and STEM', Ultramicroscopy 18 (1985), 419–426.
160. P. A. Bennett, H.-J. Ou, C. Elibol and J. M. Cowley, 'Domain structure of the Si(111) 2x1 surface studied by reflection electron microscopy', J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3 (1985), 1634–1635.
161. J. M. Cowley, 'The future of high resolution electron microscopy', Ultramicroscopy 18 (1985), 463–468.
162. J. M. Cowley and Z. L. Wang, 'Defocussed dark field images of crystal surfaces', Ultramicroscopy 19 (1986), 217–223.
163. J. M. Cowley, 'Electron diffraction phenomena observed with a high resolution STEM instrument', J. Electron Micr. Tech. 3 (1986), 25–44.
164. T. Tanji and J. M. Cowley, 'Interactions of electron beams with surface of MgO crystals', Ultramicroscopy 17 (1985), 287–302.
165. J. A. Lin and J. M. Cowley, 'Calibration of the operating parameters for an HB5 STEM Instrument', Ultramicroscopy 19 (1986), 31–42.
166. J. A. Lin and J. M. Cowley, 'Reconstruction from in-line electron holograms by digital processing', Ultramicroscopy 19 (1986), 179–190.
167. L. M. Peng and J. M. Cowley, 'Dynamical diffraction calculations for RHEED and REM', Acta Cryst. A42 (1986), 545–552.
168. N. Tanaka, J. M. Cowley and K. Ohshima, 'High resolution electron microscopy observations of disordered Au–15at% Mn alloys', Acta Cryst. A43 (1987), 41–48.
169. S.-Y. Zhang and J. M. Cowley, 'HREM and nanodiffraction study of MgO-Al Interface', Thin Solid Films 148 (1987), 301–310.
170. Z. L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'Surface plasmon excitation for supported metal particles', Ultramicroscopy 21 (1987), 77–94.
171. G. Y. Fan and J. M. Cowley, 'The simulation of high-resolution images of amorphous thin films', Ultramicroscopy 21 (1987), 125–130.
172. J. A. Venables, D. J. Smith and J. M. Cowley, 'HREM, STEM, REM, STEM - and STM', Surface Sci. 181 (1986), 235–249.
173. J. A. Lin and J. M. Cowley, 'Aberration analysis by three-beam interferograms', Appl. Optics 25 (1986), 2245–2246.
174. J. M. Cowley, 'Electron microscopy and surface structure', Progr. Surface Sci. 21 (1986), 209–250.
175. Tung Hsu, J. M. Cowley, L.-M. Peng and H.‑J. Ou, 'Reflection electron microscopy methods for the study of surface structure', J. Microsc. 146 (1987), 17–27.
176. G.-Y. Fan, J. M. Cowley and J. C. H. Spence, Comment on 'Submicrocrystallites and orientational proximity effects', Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 (1987), 282–283.
177. C. Mory, C. Colliex and J. M. Cowley, 'About an optimum defocus for STEM imaging and microanalysis', Ultramicroscopy 21 (1987), 171–177.
178. N. Tanaka and J. M. Cowley, 'Electron microscope imaging of short range order in disordered alloys', Acta Cryst. A43 (1987), 337–346.
179. L. M. Peng and J. M. Cowley, 'A geometric analysis of surface resonance conditions in RHEED', J. Electron Micr. Tech. 6 (1987), 43–53.
180. J. M. Cowley and D. J. Smith, 'The present and future of high resolution electron microscopy', Acta Cryst. A43 (1987), 593–612.
181. J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution imaging and diffraction studies of crystal surfaces', J. Electron Microsc. 36 (1987), 72–81.
182. H.-J. Ou and J. M. Cowley, 'SREM of MgO crystal surface structure and in-situ deposited metallic particles on MgO surface', Ultramicroscopy 22 (1987), 207–216.
183. Z.-L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'Generation of surface plasmon excitation of supported metal particles by an external electron beam', Ultramicroscopy 21 (1987), 347–366.
184. Z.-L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'Excitation of the supported metal particles surface plasmon with external electron beam', Ultramicroscopy 21 (1987). 335–346.
185. M. Pan, J. M. Cowley and I. Y. Chan, 'The structure of Pt particles on a-Al2O3', J. Appl. Cryst. 20 (1987), 300–305.
186. Z.-L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'Size and shape dependence of the surface plasmon frequencies for supported metal particle systems', Ultramicroscopy 23 (1987), 97–108.
187. Z. L. Wang, P. Lu and J. M. Cowley, 'Electron resonance channeling on crystal surfaces in reflection high energy electron diffraction geometry', Ultramicroscopy 23 (1987), 205–222.
188. J. M. Cowley, 'Imaging and diffraction on the atomic scale', Aust. Physicist 24 (1987), 264–268.
189. L.-M. Peng and J. M. Cowley, 'Diffraction contrast in reflection electron microscopy. I. Screw dislocation', Micron Microsc. Acta 18 (1987), 171–178.
190. L.-M. Peng, J. M. Cowley and Tung Hsu, 'Diffraction contrast in reflection electron microscopy. II. Surface steps and dislocations under the surface', Micron Microsc. Acta 18 (1987), 179–186.
191. J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution electron microscopy', Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 38 (1987), 57–88.
192. M. Pan, J. M. Cowley and R. Garcia, 'STEM and microdiffraction studies of Rh/CeO2', Micron Microsc. Acta 18 (1987), 165–169.
193. J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution SEM of surface reactions', Ultramicroscopy 23 (1987), 463–472.
194. Jing Zhu, L.-M. Peng and J. M. Cowley, 'Effects of the coherence of illumination in electron microdiffraction pattern intensities', J. Electron Micr. Tech. 7 (1987), 177–183.
195. J. M. Cowley and R. J. Plano, 'A microdiffraction study of gold-ruthenium catalyst particles', J. Catalysis 108 (1987), 199–207.
196. H.-J. Ou and J. M. Cowley, 'Study of freshly deposited metallic particles on MgO crystal surfaces by scanning reflection electron microscopy', Ultramicroscopy 23 (1987), 263–270.
197. Z.-L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'Reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS): a technique for the study of surfaces', Surface Sci. 193 (1988), 501–512.
198. J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution SEM in a STEM instrument', Scanning Microscopy 2 (1988), 65–81.
199. L.-M. Peng and J. M. Cowley, 'Errors arising from numerical use of the Mott formula in electron image simulation', Acta Cryst. A44 (1988), 1–5.
200. G. Y. Fan and J. M. Cowley, 'Assessing the information content of HREM images', Ultramicroscopy 24 (1988), 49–60.
201. Z. L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'Atomic inner shell excitations for EELS in the reflection mode', J. Micros Spectros. Electr. 13 (1988), 184–204.
202. L. M. Peng and J. M. Cowley, 'A multislice approach to the RHEED and REM calculation', Surface Sci. 199 (1988), 609–622.
203. L. M. Peng and J. M. Cowley, 'Experimental studies of surface resonance scattering processes in RHEED', Surface Sci. 201 (1988), 559–571.
204. M. Pan and J. M. Cowley, 'Computer-simulated electron microdiffraction patterns from MgO crystal surfaces', Ultramicroscopy 26 (1988), 205–216.
205. Z. L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'REELS and RHEED characterizations of electron resonance channelling in crystal surfaces', Ultramicroscopy 26 (1988), 233–238.
206. L. M. Peng, J. M. Cowley and N. Yao, 'The observation of surface resonance effects in RHEED patterns', Ultramicroscopy 26 (1988), 189–194.
207. L. M. Peng and J. M. Cowley, 'Surface resonance effects and beam convergence in REM', Ultramicroscopy 26 (1988), 161–167.
208. L. M. Peng and J. M. Cowley, 'Diffuse diffraction spots in RHEED patterns', Ultramicroscopy 26 (1988), 227–232.
209. L.-M. Peng and J. M. Cowley, 'EELS analysis of surface-channelled electrons', Surface Sci. 204 (1988), 555–567.
210. H. J. Ou and J. M. Cowley, 'The surface reaction of Pd/MgO studied by scanning reflection electron microscopy', Phys. Status Solidi 107 (1988), 719–729.
211. J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution electron microscopy of the solid-vacuum interface', J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A6, 3 (1988), 1.
212. J. M. Cowley, 'Electron microscopy of crystals with time-dependent perturbations', Acta Cryst. A44 (1988), 847–853.
213. J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Contrast and resolution of secondary electron images in a scanning transmission electron microscope', Scanning Microscopy 2, 4 (1988), 1957–1970.
214. Z. L. Wang, J. Liu, Ping Lu and J. M. Cowley, 'Electron resonance reflections from perfect crystal surfaces and surfaces with steps', Ultramicroscopy 27 (1988), 101–112.
215. H.-J. Ou, S.-C.Y. Tsen, K. T. Tsen, J. M. Cowley, J. I. Chyi, A. Salvador and H. Morkoc, 'Determination of the local Al concentration in Alx Ga1-xAs-GaAs quantum well structures using the (200) diffraction intensity obtained with a 10Ä electron beam', Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 15 (1989), 1454–1456.
216. Nan Yao, Z. L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'REM and REELS identifications of atomic terminations at a-Alumina (011) surface', Surface Sci. 208 (1989), 533–549.
217. Takayoshi Tanji, Hideki Masaoka, Jhota Ito, Keiji Yada and J. M. Cowley, 'Charging effect on the HRTEM imaging of small MgO crystals', Ultramicroscopy 27 (1989), 223–232.
218. J. M. Cowley and H.-J. Ou, 'Observation of microdiffraction patterns with a dedicated STEM instrument', J. Electron Micr. Tech. 11 (1989), 143–154.
219. J. M. Cowley, 'Observation of surface channelling phenomena with a STEM instrument', Ultramicroscopy 27 (1989), 319–329.
220. J. Konnert, P. D'Antonio, J. M. Cowley, A. Higgs and H.-J. Ou, 'Determination of atomic positions using electron nanodiffraction patterns from overlapping regions: Si[110]', Ultramicroscopy 30 (1989), 371–384.
221. Z. L. Wang, J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Electron inelastic plasmon scattering and its resonance propagation at crystal surfaces in RHEED', Acta Cryst. A45 (1989), 325–332.
222. L.-M. Peng, J. M. Cowley and T. Hsu, 'Reflection electron imaging of free surfaces and surface/dislocation interactions', Ultramicroscopy 29 (1989), 135–146.
223. L.-M. Peng and J. M. Cowley, 'Thermal diffuse scattering and REM image-contrast preservation', Ultramicroscopy 29 (1989), 168–174.
224. J. M. Cowley, 'Imaging and analysis of surfaces with high spatial resolution', J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A7 (1989), 89–94.
225. M. Pan, J. M. Cowley and J. C. Barry, 'Coherent electron microdiffraction from small metal particles', Ultramicroscopy 30 (1989), 385–394.
226. Nan Yao and J. M. Cowley, 'The parabolas and circles in RHEED patterns', Ultramicroscopy 31 (1989), 149–157.
227. G. G. Hembree, P. A. Crozier, J. S. Drucker, M. Krishnamurthy, J. A. Venables and J. M. Cowley, 'Biassed secondary electron imaging in a UHV-STEM', Ultramicroscopy 31 (1989), 111–115.
228. Z. L. Wang, J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Sensitivity of the ELNES in REELS to the beam reductions at the TiO2 (110) surfaces', Surface Sci. 216 (1989), 528–538.
229. Z. L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'Simulating high-angle annular dark-field STEM images including inelastic thermal diffuse scattering', Ultramicroscopy 31 (1989), 437–454.
230. J. M. Cowley, 'Surface channelling effects in electron holograms', Ultramicroscopy 31 (1989), 223–232.
231. Z. L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'Dynamic theory of high-angle annular dark field STEM lattice images for a Ge/Si interface', Ultramicroscopy 32 (1990), 275–289.
232. J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'High Angle ADF and High resolution SE imaging of supported catalyst clusters', Ultramicroscopy 34 (1990), 119–128.
233. M. Pan, J. M. Cowley and I. Y. Chan, 'HREM imaging of small Pt clusters dispersed in Y‑zeolites', Catalyst Lett. 5 (1990), 1–12.
234. M. Pan, J. M. Cowley and I. Y. Chan, 'Study of high dispersed Pt in Y-zeolites by STEM and electron micro-diffraction', Ultramicroscopy 34 (1990), 93–101.
235. H.-J. Ou, J. M. Cowley, J. I. Chyi, A. Salvador and H. Morkoc, 'Microanalysis on the (200) diffraction intensity to determine the Al concentrations for AlGaAs-GaAs MQWS structures', J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2 (1990), 698–704.
236. N. Yao and J. M. Cowley, 'Electron diffraction conditions and surface imaging in reflection electron microscopy', Ultramicroscopy 33 (1990), 237–254.
237. J. M. Cowley, 'High Resolution side-band holography with a STEM Instrument', Ultramicroscopy 34 (1990), 293–297.
238. M. Gajdardziska-Josifovska and J. M. Cowley, 'Brillouin zones and Kikuchi lines by crystals under electron channelling conditions', Acta Cryst. A47 (1991), 74–82.
239. J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Imaging with high- angle scattered electrons and secondary electrons in the STEM', Ultramicroscopy 37 (1991), 50–71.
240. M. Gajdardziska-Josifovska, P. A. Crozier and J. M. Cowley, 'A (3x3) R30° reconstruction on annealed (111) surfaces of MgO', Surface Sci. Lett. 248 (1991), L259–L264.
241. P. Lu, J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Theoretical and experimental studies of electron resonance effects in reflection high energy electron diffraction', Acta Cryst. A47 (1991), 317–327.
242. Nan Yao and J. M. Cowley, 'Observation of double-line contrast in surface imaging', Micros. Res. Tech. 20 (1992), 413–425.
243. Godfrey C. Ndubuisi, J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Characterization of the annealed (0001) surface of sapphire (_‑Al2O3) and interaction with silver by REM and SREM', Micros. Res. Tech. 20 (1992), 439–449.
244. P. A. Crozier, M. Gajdardziska-Josifovska and J. M. Cowley, 'Preparation and characterization of MgO surfaces by reflection electron microscopy', Micros. Res. Tech. 20 (1992), 426–438.
245. J. Liu, Y. Cheng, J. M. Cowley and M. B. Stearns, 'High-angle annular dark-field microscopy of Mo/Si multilayer structures', Ultramicroscopy 40 (1992), 352–364.
246. Godfrey C. Ndubuisi, J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Stepped surfaces of sapphire (a-Al2O3) with low Miller indices', Micros. Res. Tech. 21 (1992), 10–22.
247. J. M. Cowley and Yi Huang, 'De-channelling contrast in annular dark-field STEM', Ultramicroscopy 40 (1992), 171–180.
248. J. M. Cowley, 'Resolution limitation in the electron microscopy of surfaces', Ultramicroscopy 47 (1992), 187–198.
249. J. Liu, L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'Alumina- induced reconstruction on annealed (001) surfaces of rutile', Surface Sci. 268 (1992), L293–L299.
250. J. M. Cowley, 'Twenty forms of electron holography', Ultramicroscopy 41 (1992), 335–348.
251. Feng Tsai and J. M. Cowley, 'Observation of ferroelectric domain boundaries in BaTiO3 single crystals by reflection electron microscopy (REM)', Ultramicroscopy 45 (1992), 43–53.
252. Feng Tsai, Victoria Khiznichencko and J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution electron microscopy of 90° ferroelectric domain boundaries in BaTiO3 and Pb (Zr0.52 Ti0.48)O3', Ultramicroscopy 45 (1992), 55–63.
253. M. A. Gribelyuk and J. M. Cowley, 'Computer analysis of side-band holography in STEM', Ultramicroscopy 45 (1992), 103–113.
254. M. A. Gribelyuk and J. M. Cowley, 'Determination of the imaging conditions in off-axis side-band STEM holography', Ultramicroscopy 45 (1992), 115–125.
255. Yi Huang and J. M. Cowley, 'A study of Cu3Au (110) surface structure by RHEED', Surface Sci. 285 (1993), 42–58.
256. M. Gajdardziska, P. A. Crozier, M. R. McCartney and J. M. Cowley, 'Ca segregation and step modification on cleaved and annealed MgO (100) surfaces', Surface Sci. 284 (1993), 186–199.
257. J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Scanning reflection electron microscopy and associated techniques for surface studies', Ultramicroscopy 48 (1993), 381–416.
258. Mingqi Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Particle/dislocation interactions in dispersion strengthened tungsten alloy at ultra-high temperatures', Scripta Metall. Mater. 28 (1993), 307–312.
259. Mingqi Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Hafnium carbide growth behavior and its relationship to the dispersion hardening in tungsten at high temperatures', Mater. Sci. Eng. A160 (1993), 159–167.
260. J. M. Cowley,'Configured detectors for STEM imaging of thin specimens', Ultramicroscopy 49 (1993), 4–13.
261. M. A. Gribelyuk and J. M. Cowley, 'Determination of experimental imaging conditions for off-axis transmission electron holography', Ultramicroscopy 50 (1993), 29–40.
262. J. C. H. Spence, J. M. Cowley and J. M. Zuo, 'Comment on: Electron holographic study of ferroelectric domain walls', Appl. Phys. Lett. 62 (1993), 2446–2447.
263. F. Tsai and J. M. Cowley, 'Observation of ferroelectric domain boundaries in BaTiO3 by transmission and reflection electron microscopy', Ferroelectrics 140 (1993), 203–210.
264. S. Kraut and J. M. Cowley, 'A simplified mode of differential phase contrast Lorentz microscopy', Microsc. Res. Tech. 25 (1993), 341–345.
265. Y. Huang and J. M. Cowley, 'Structure of sulfur-adsorbed Cu3Au(110) surface', Surface Sc. 289 (1993), 340–356.
266. J. M. Cowley and J. Liu, 'Contrast and resolution in REM, SEM and SAM', Surface Sci. 298 (1993), 456–467.
267. J. M. Cowley, 'Electron holography and holographic diffraction in surface science', Surface Sci. 298 (1993), 336–344.
268. J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy', Ultramicroscopy 52 (1993), 335–346.
269. Feng Tsai and J. M. Cowley, 'Observation of planar defects by reflection electron microscopy', Ultramicroscopy 52 (1993), 400–403.
270. Marian Mankos, J. M. Cowley, R. V. Chamberlin, M. R. Scheinfein and M. B. Stearns, 'Scanning transmission electron microscopy of thin magnetic films', IEEE Trans. Magnetics 30 (1993), 720–722.
271. L. Wang, J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Studies of single crystal TiO2(001) and (100) surfaces by reflection high energy electron diffraction and reflection electron microscopy', Surface Sci. 302 (1994), 141–157.
272. Yimei Zhu and J. M. Cowley, 'Three-dimensional structural modulation in doped YBa2Cu3O7-d', Phil. Mag. A 69 (1994), 397–408.
273. J. M. Cowley and M. A. Gribelyuk, 'High resolution coherent imaging and holography in STEM', Microsc. Soc. Am. B. 24 (1994), 438–450.
274. Ming-qi Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Structure of carbon nanotubes studied by HRTEM and nanodiffraction', Ultramicroscopy 53 (1994), 333–342.
275. Ming-qi Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Growth behavior and growth defects of carbon nanotubes', Mater. Sci. Eng. A185 (1994), 131–140.
276. J. M. Cowley and Ming-qi Liu, 'The structure of carbon nanotubes impregnated with yttrium', Micron 25 (1994), 53–61.
277. Ming-qi Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Structures of the helical carbon nanotubes', Carbon 32 (1994), 393–403.
278. L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'Electron channelling effects at high incident angles in convergent beam reflection high energy electron diffraction', Ultramicroscopy 55 (1994), 228–240.
279. Tung Hsu and J. M. Cowley, 'Study of twinning with the reflection electron microscopy (REM)', Ultramicroscopy 55 (1994), 302–307.
280. Marian Mankos, M. R. Scheinfein and J. M. Cowley, 'Absolute magnetometry at nm transverse spatial resolution: STEM holography of thin cobalt films', J. Appl. Phys. 75 (1994), 7418–7422.
281. J. M. Cowley, M. Q. Liu, B. L. Ramakrishna, T. S. Peace, A. K. Wertsching and M. R. Pena, 'A new type of metal-fulleride structure: C60Pd3', Carbon 32 (1994), 746–748.
282. Feng Tsai and J. M. Cowley, 'Thickness dependence of ferroelectric domains in thin crystalline films', Appl. Phys. Lett. 65 (1994), 1906–1908.
283. J. M. Cowley, M. Mankos, M. R. Scheinfein and Z. J. Yang, 'Absolute magnetometry of thin cobalt films and Co/Cu multilayer structures with nanometer spatial resolution', IEEE Trans. Magnetics 30, 6 (1994), 4497–4499.
284. M. Gajdardziska-Josifovska, J. K. Weiss and J. M. Cowley, 'Studies of Mo/Si multilayers with coherent electron beams', Ultramicroscopy 58 (1995), 65–78.
285. Marian Mankos, A. A. Higgs, M. R. Scheinfein and J. M. Cowley, 'Far-out-of-focus electron holography in a dedicated FEG STEM', Ultramicroscopy 58 (1995), 87–96.
286. J. M. Cowley, M. S. Hansen and S. Y. Wang, 'Imaging modes with an annular detector in STEM', Ultramicroscopy 58 (1995), 18–24.
287. Shi-Yao Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'Shadow images for in-line holography in a STEM instrument', Micros. Res. Tech. 30 (1995), 181–192.
288. Yi Huang, M. Gajdardziska-Josifovska and J. M. Cowley, 'REM in a UHV TEM for the observation of dynamic phase transformation processes on the Cu3Au(111) surface', Ultramicroscopy 57 (1995), 391–408.
289. Mingqi Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Encapsulation of lanthanum carbide in carbon nanotubes and carbon nanoparticles', Carbon 33 (1995), 225–232.
290. J. M. Cowley, 'Chromatic coherence and inelastic scattering in electron holography', Ultramicroscopy 57 (1995), 327–331.
291. Mingqi Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Encapsulation of manganese carbides within carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles', Carbon 33 (1995), 749–756.
292. Yi Huang and J. M. Cowley, 'SEM and SAM study of sulfur segregation on a Cu3Au(110) surface', Surface Sci. 328 (1995), 277–286.
293. Marian Mankos, J. M. Cowley and M. R. Scheinfein, 'Absolute magnetometry using electron holography: Magnetic superlattices and small particles', MRS Bulletin 20, 10 (1995), 45–48.
294. M. Mankos, M. R. Scheinfein and J. M. Cowley, 'Absolute magnetometry of small particles using electron holography', IEEE Trans. Magnetics 31 (1995), 3796–3798.
295. R.-J. Liu and J. M. Cowley. 'Dark-Field and Marginal Imaging with a Thin-Annular Detector in STEM', J. Micros. Soc. Am. 2 (1996), 9–19.
296. J. M. Cowley and Scott D. Packard, 'Coherent nanodiffraction from phase objects: Carbon nanotubes', Ultramicroscopy 63 (1996), 39–47.
297. J. M. Cowley, M. Mankos and M. R. Scheinfein, 'Greatly-defocused, point- projection, off-axis electron holography', Ultramicroscopy 63 (1996), 133–147.
298. Marian Mankos, J. M. Cowley and M. R. Scheinfein, 'Quantitative micromagnetics at high spatial resolution using electron holography', Phys. Status Solidi A 154 (1996), 469–504.
299. J. M. Cowley, V. I. Merkulov and J. S. Lannin, 'Imaging of light-atom nanocrystals with a thin annular detector in STEM', Ultramicroscopy 65 (1996), 61–70.
300. Yi Huang and John M. Cowley, 'Contact potential contrast in SEM images observed on sulfur-adsorbed Cu3Au (110) surfaces', Ultramicroscopy 66 (1996), 211–220.
301. J. M. Cowley, M. Mankos and M. R. Scheinfein, 'Quantitative micromagnetics: electron holography of magnetic thin films and multilayers', IEEE Trans. Magnetics 32, 5 (1996), 4150–4155.
302. J. M. Cowley, Pavel Nikolaev, Andreas Thess and Richard E. Smalley, 'Electron nanodiffraction study of carbon single-walled nanotube ropes', Chem. Phys. Lett. 265 (1997), 379–384.
303. A. Amali, P. Rez and J. M. Cowley, 'High- angle annular dark-field imaging of stacking faults', Micron 28 (1997), 89–94.
304. J. M. Cowley and F. A. Sundell, 'Nanodiffraction and dark-field STEM characterization of single-walled carbon nanotube ropes', Ultramicroscopy 68 (1997), 1–12.
305. J. M. Cowley, J. C. H. Spence and Valery V. Smirnov, 'The enhancement of electron microscope resolution by use of atomic focusers', Ultramicroscopy 68 (1997), 135–148.
306. J. M. Cowley, 'Applications of STEM instruments for surface studies', Surface Rev. Lett. 4, 3 (1997), 567–575.
307. Michael Sanchez and J. M. Cowley, 'The imaging properties of atomic focusers', Ultramicroscopy 72 (1998), 213–222.
308. J. M. Cowley, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski and Michele Hayward, 'The contrast of images formed by atomic focusers', Ultramicroscopy 72 (1998), 223–232.
309. Max V. Siderov, Michael D. McKelvy, John M. Cowley and William S. Glaunsinger, 'Novel guest-layer behavior of mercury titanium disulfide intercalates', Chem. Mater. 10 (1998), 3290–3293.
310. R. E. Dunin-Borkowski and J. M. Cowley, 'Simulations for imaging with atomic focusers', Acta Cryst. A55 (1999), 119–126.
311. J. M. Cowley, Newton Ooi and R. E. Dunin- Borkowski, 'Moiré patterns in electron microscopy with atomic focuser crystals', Acta Cryst. A55 (1999), 533–542.
312. Dawn E. Janney, J. M. Cowley and Peter R. Buseck, 'Transmission electron microscopy of synthetic 2-and 6-line ferrihydrite', Clays Clay Miner. 48 (2000), 111–119.
313. J. M. Cowley, 'Atomic-focuser imaging in electron nanodiffraction from carbon nanoshells', Ultramicroscopy 81 (2000), 47–55.
314. Dawn E. Janney, J. M. Cowley and Peter R. Buseck, 'Structure of synthetic 2-line ferrihydrite by electron nanodiffraction', Am. Mineral. 85 (2000), 1180–1187.
315. J. M. Cowley and J. B. Hudis, 'Atomic- focuser imaging by graphite crystals in carbon nanoshells', Microsc. Microanal. 6 (2000), 429–436.
316. J. M. Cowley, 'Electron holography with atomic focusers', Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 16 (2000), 3618–3621.
317. J. M. Cowley and Ching-Hwa Kiang, 'The structures of near-spherical carbon nano- shells', Carbon 38 (2000), 1437–1444.
318. J. M. Cowley, Dawn E. Janney, R. C. Gerkin and Peter R. Buseck, 'The structure of ferritin cores determined by electron nanodiffraction', J. Struct. Biol. 131 (2000), 210–216.
319. V. V. Kovalevski, Peter R. Buseck and J. M. Cowley, 'Comparison of carbon in shungite rocks to other natural carbons: an X-ray and TEM study', Carbon 39 (2001), 243–256.
320. J. M. Cowley, 'Comments on ultra-high resolution STEM', Ultramicroscopy 87 (2001), 1–4.
321. Dawn E. Janney, J. M. Cowley and Peter R. Buseck, 'Structure of synthetic 6-line ferrihydrite by electron nanodiffraction', Am. Mineral. 86 (2001), 327–335.
322. J. M. Cowley and Jamie Winterton, 'Ultra- high-resolution electron microscopy of carbon nanotube walls', Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 1 (2001), 1–4.
323. J. M. Cowley, 'STEM imaging with a thin annular detector', J. Electron Microsc. 50 (2001), 147–155.
324. J. M. Cowley, 'Electron nanodiffraction methods for measuring medium-range order'. Ultramicroscopy 90 (2002), 197–206.
325. V. V. Smirnov and J. M. Cowley, 'In-line electron- holography with an atomic-focuser source', Phys. Rev. B65 (2002), 064109.
326. R. C. Mani, S. Sharma, M. K. Sunkara, J. Gallapalli, R. P. Baldwin, R. Rao, A. M. Rao and J. M. Cowley, 'Synthesis and electrochemical characteristics of a nanocomposite diamond electrode', ECS Lett. 5, 6 (2002), E32–E35.
327. Carolyn Jones Otten, Oleg R. Lourie, Min- Feng Yu, John M. Cowley, Mark J. Dyer, Rodney S. Ruoff and William E. Buhro, 'Crystalline boron nanowires', J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 17 (2002), 4564–4565.
328. J. M. Cowley, 'Ultra-high resolution with off- axis STEM holography', Ultramicroscopy 96, 2 (2003), 163–166.
329. J. M. Cowley, 'Off-axis STEM or TEM holography combined with four-dimensional diffraction-imaging', Micros. Microanal. 10, 1 (2004), 9–15.
330. J. M. Cowley, 'Applications of electron nanodiffraction', Micron 35, 5 (2004), 345–360.
331. C. Quintana, J. M. Cowley and C. Marhic, 'Electron nanodiffraction and high resolution electron microscopy studies of the structure and composition of physiological and pathological ferritin', J. Struct. Biol. 147, 2 (2004), 166–178.
332. J. M. Cowley, R. C. Mani and M. K. Sunkara, 'Structures of carbon nanocrystals', Chem. Mater. 16, 24 (2004), 4905–4911.
333. M. Loan, J. M. Cowley and R. Hart, 'Evidence on the structure of synthetic schwertmannite', Am. Mineral. 89, 11 (2004), 1735–1742.
334. R. C. Mani, M. K. Sunkara, R. P. Baldwin, J. G. Gullapalli, J. A. Chaney, G. Bhimarasetti, J. M. Cowley, A. M. Rao and R. H. Rao, 'Nanocrystalline graphite for electrochemical sensing', J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, 4 (2005), E154–E159.

2. Papers in conference proceedings (two or more pages)

1.     J. M. Cowley and A. F. Moodie, 'The imaging of crystal lattices and their imperfections', Proceedings of European Regional Conference on Electron Microscopy (1961), 199–202.
2.     J. M. Cowley, 'Electron diffraction from unresolvable defects', Proceedings of Conference on Electron Diffraction and Crystal Defects, Melbourne 1965, J-5 (1965).
3.     J. M. Cowley and A. P. Pogany, 'Dynamical diffraction from perturbed and disordered crystals', Electron Microscopy, 1966, Proceedings of 6th International Conference for Electron Microscopy, Kyoto (1966), 75–76.
4.     S. Kuwabara, P. S. Turner and J. M. Cowley, 'Variation of electron diffraction intensities of BiOC1 lamellar polycrystals with wavelength, crystal thickness filtering', Electron Microscopy, 1966, Proceedings of the 6th International Congress for Electron Microscopy, Kyoto (1966), 59.
5.     J. M. Cowley and A. Strojnik, 'A 600kV transmission scanning electron microscope', Electron Microscopy, 1968, Proceedings of the 4th European Regional Conference on Electron Microscopy, Rome (1968), 71–72.
6.     J. M. Cowley and A. Strojnik, 'A 600kV transmission scanning electron microscope', Scanning Electron Microscopy 1969, Proceedings of 2nd Annual Scanning Electron Microscopy Symposium, I. I. T. Research Institute (1969), 13–17.
7.     J. M. Cowley and A. Strojnik, 'Design and application of a high-voltage transmission scanning electron microscope', Proceedings 27th Annual Meeting EMSA (1969), 27–28.
8.     J. M. Cowley, 'High-voltage scanning electron microscopy', Proceedings of the 28th Annual EMSA meeting (1970), 6–7.
9.     J. M. Cowley and G. R. Grinton, 'Calculations of contrast from model biological systems', Proceedings 28th Annual Meeting EMSA (1970), 30.
10.   J. M. Cowley and Sumio Iijima, 'The interpretation of crystal lattice images', Proceedings 29th Annual Meeting EMSA (1971), 168–169.
12.   J. M. Cowley, 'New possibilities for electron diffraction', Proceedings 29th Annual Meeting EMSA (1971), 172–173.
13.   J. M. Cowley, 'Analysis of dark-field images of disordered materials', Proceedings 30th Annual Meeting EMSA (1972), 560–561.
14.   J. M. Cowley and Sumio Iijima, 'The interpretation of crystal lattice images', Proceedings 30th Annual Meeting EMSA (1972), 550–551.
15.   J. R. Sellar and J. M. Cowley, 'Contrast and resolution in alfresco microscopy and thick specimens', Proceedings 30th Annual Meeting EMSA (1972), 570–571.
16.   J. M. Cowley, F. A. Koch and J. L. Albain, 'Medium energy electron diffraction and scanning electron microscopy for surface studies', Proceedings of 33rd Conference on Physical Electronics, Berkeley (1973), 13–16.
17.   J. M. Cowley, F. A. Koch and J. L. Albain, 'An experimental system combining medium energy electron diffraction and scanning electron microscopy', 31st Annual Proceedings EMSA (1973), 136–137.
18.   W. H. Massover and J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution lattice images of ferritin core crystallites', in 31st Annual Proceedings EMSA (1973), 598–599.
19.   J. M. Cowley, 'A comparison of scanning and fixed beam high voltage electron microscopy', 31st Annual Proceedings EMSA (1973), 6–7.
20.   J. M. Cowley, 'Contrast in high resolution bright-field and dark-field images of thin specimens', 31st Annual Proceedings EMSA (1973), 222–223.
21.   J. M. Cowley, 'High voltage SEM: Contrast theory and applications', in High Voltage Electron Microscopy, ed. P. R. Swann, C. J. Humphreys and M. J. Goringe (Academic Press, London and New York, 1974), pp. 76–84.
22.   J. M. Cowley, 'The interpretation of electron diffraction patterns of faulted structures', in 32nd Annual Proceedings EMSA (1974), 342–343.
23.   J. L. Albain, J. M. Cowley, P. E. Højlund Nielsen, F. A. Koch and H. Shuman, 'Surface studies with medium energy electron diffraction (MEED)', 32nd Annual Proceedings EMSA (1974), 414–415.
24.   H. Shuman and J. M. Cowley, 'Surface diffraction imaging of lattice defects', 32nd Annual Proceedings EMSA (1974), 344–345.
25.   J. M. Cowley, 'Scanning transmission electron microscopy of thick and crystalline specimens', in Electron Microscopy/1974, Vol. I, pp. 18–19 (Proceedings of Eighth International Conference on Electron Microscopy, Canberra, 1974).
26.   J. L. Albain, J. M. Cowley, P. E. Højlund Nielsen, F. A. Koch and H. Shuman, 'Reflection electron microscopy using diffracted beams', in Electron Microscopy/1974, Vol. I, pp. 62–63 (1974).
27.   H. T. Pearce-Pearcy and J. M. Cowley, 'Application of energy analysis to STEM', in Electron Microscopy/1974, Vol. I, pp. 394–395 (1974).
28.   J. M. Cowley, 'A comparison of scanning and fixed beam high voltage electron microscopy', in Electron Microscopy and Microbeam Analyses, ed. B. M. Siegel and D. R. Beaman (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1975), pp. 17–28.
29.   J. M. Cowley, 'Contrast in high resolution bright field and dark field images of thin specimens', in Electron Microscopy and Microbeam Analyses, ed. B. M. Siegel and D. R. Beaman (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1975), pp. 3–15.
30.   J. D. Landry, P. E. Højlund Nielsen, G. G. Hembree and J. M. Cowley, 'Medium energy electron study of surface structures formed upon oxidation of copper', 33rd Annual Proceedings EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (1975), 66–67.
31.   P. E. Højlund Nielsen and J. M. Cowley, 'Reflection electron microscopy', 33rd Annual Proceedings EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (1975), 122–123.
32.   J. M. Cowley, 'Potentialities and problems of high resolution', in High Voltage Electron Microscopy/1975, Fourth International Conference, Toulouse (1975), 129–134.
34.   J. M. Cowley, 'Intensity distributions in high resolution images of thin crystals', Microscopical Society of Canada, Vol. III (1976), 14–15.
35.   J. M. Cowley, 'Image Contrast for Dark-field STEM', 34th Annual Proceedings EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (1976), 466–467.
36.   J. M. Cowley and Bing K. Jap, 'The use of diffraction pattern information in STEM', 34th Annual Proceedings EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (1976), 460–461.
37.   G. G. Hembree, M. A. Otooni and J. M. Cowley, 'Studies of oxide formation on copper thin films by reflection electron microscopy', 35th Annual Proceedings EMSA (1977), 316–317.
38.   P. M. Fields and J. M. Cowley, 'Computer simulation of the imaging of atomic defects in metals', 35th Annual Proceedings EMSA (1977), 14–15.
39.   J. M. Cowley, 'High voltage STEM – contrast theory and applications', in High Voltage Electron Microscopy, 1977, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on HVEM, Kyoto (1977), 9–14.
40.   J. M. Cowley, 'The imaging of crystal structures and crystal defects', in Electron Microscopy 1978, Vol. III: State of the Art Symposia, ed. J. M. Sturgess (Microscopical Society of Canada, Toronto, 1978), pp. 207–217.
41.   G. G. Hembree, J. M. Cowley and M. A. Otooni, 'A RMEED and SEM investigation of metal oxidation phenomena', Electron Microscopy 1978, Vol. I, ed. J. M. Sturgess (Microscopical Society of Canada, Toronto, 1978), pp. 444–445.
42.   J. M. Cowley and Andrew Y. Au, 'Bright-field image contrast and resolution in STEM and CTEM', Electron Microscopy 1978, Vol. I, ed. J. M. Sturgess (Microscopical Society of Canada, Toronto, 1978), pp. 172–173.
43.   J. M. Cowley and P. M. Fields, 'Imaging and diffraction from localized defects and disorder in crystals', Electron Microscopy 1978, Vol. I, ed. J. M. Sturgess Microscopical Society of Canada, Toronto, 1978), pp. 240–241.
44.   Fumio Watari and J. M. Cowley, 'Study of oxidation on the surface of chromium by STEM', 37th Annual Proceedings EMSA (Claitor's Publication Division, Baton Rouge, LA, 1979), 472–473.
45.   J. M. Cowley, 'STEM imaging with an optical analyzer detection system', 37th Annual Proceedings EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (Claitor's Publication Division, Baton Rouge, LA, 1979), 472–473.
46.   J. M. Cowley, 'Application of a STEM instrument to the study of crystals', in Electron Microscopy and Analysis 1979, ed. T. Mulvey (Institute of Physics, London, 1980), pp. 239–355.
47.   J. M. Cowley, P. Goodman, P. S. Turner and M. Disko, 'Interference effects in shadow image electron microscopy (STEM) and in STEM and CTEM of surfaces', 38th Annual Proccedings EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (Claitors Publication Division, Baton Rouge, LA, 1980), 164–165.
48.   Fumio Watari and J. M. Cowley, 'STEM and ELS observation of early oxide formation on the surface of Cr thin films', 38th Annual Proceedings EMSA, ed. G.W. Bailey (Claitor's Publication Division, Baton Rouge, LA, 1980), 412–413.
49.   P. S. Turner and J. M. Cowley, 'Reflection and refraction imaging of oxide surfaces in TEM and STEM', Electron Microscopy 1980, ed. P. Brederoo and G. Boom (Seventh European Congress on Electron Microscopy Foundation, Leiden, 1980), Vol. 1, pp. 390–391.
50.   J. M. Cowley and Fumio Watari, 'Application of Microdiffraction with a STEM instrument', in Electron Microscopy 1980, ed. P. Brederoo and G. Boom (Seventh European Congress on Electron Microscopy Foundation, Leiden, 1980), Vol. 3, pp. 176–177.
51.   J. M. Cowley, 'Imaging and analysis of surfaces using diffracted electrons', 39th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (Claitor's Publication Division, Baton Rouge, LA, 1981), 211–215.
52.   J. M. Cowley, 'Rapid recording of microdiffraction with a STEM instrument', 39th Annual Proceedings EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (Claitor's Publication Division, Baton Rouge, LA, 1981), 348–349.
53.   J. C. H. Spence and J. M. Cowley, 'An X-ray laser at electron microscope voltages?', 39th Annual Proceedings EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (Claitor's Publication Division, Baton Rouge, LA, 1981), 380–381.
54.   I. Y. T. Chan and J. M. Cowley, 'Microdiffraction study of short-range ordering in LiFeO2', 39th Annual Proceedings EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (Claitor's Publication Division, Baton Rouge, LA, 1981), 350–351.
55.   F. Watari, J. H. Butler, A. Higgs and J. M. Cowley, 'Application of STEM-Digital system for ELS mapping', Electron Microscopy 1982, ed. Congress Organizing Committee, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Elektronenmikroskopie eV, Frankfurt/Main, 1982), Vol. 1, pp. 593–594.
56.   J. M. Cowley, Jing Zhu and Z. C. Kang, 'Microdiffraction studies of planar defects and surface reactions of crystals', Electron Microscopy 1982, ed. Congress Organizing Committee, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Elektronenmikroskopie eV, Frankfurt/Main, 1982), Vol. 1, pp. 633–634.
57.   H. Q. Ye and J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution imaging of Mo5O14 and Mo17O47', Electron Microscopy 1982, ed. Congress Organizing Committee, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Elektronenmikroskopie eV, Frankfurt/Main, 1982), Vol. 2, pp. 9–10.
58.   J. M. Cowley, 'Surface channelling effects in microdiffraction, STEM and EELS', Electron Microscopy 1982, ed. Congress Organizing Committee, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Elektronenmikroskopie eV, Frankfurt/Main, 1982), Vol. 2, pp. 283–284.
59.   R. W. Carpenter, I. Y. T. Chan and J. M. Cowley, 'CBED shadow images and Cs-aberration measurement', 39th Annual Proceedings EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (Claitor's Publication Division, Baton Rouge, LA, 1981), 56–57.
60.   J. M. Cowley and W. B. Monosmith, 'STEM studies of small metal particles', Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1983), pp. 332–333.
61.   J. M. Cowley, W. B. Monosmith and M. M. Disko, 'Pattern recognition techniques applied to microdiffraction patterns', Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1983), 302–303.
62.   C.-S. Tan and J. M. Cowley, 'A micro-refraction study of the potential field outside a gold crystal', Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1983), 300–301.
63.   C. E. Warble and J. M. Cowley, 'Pd/MgO Reaction Study', Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1983), 330–331.
64.   J. M. Cowley, 'Reflection electron microscopy and diffraction from crystal surfaces', Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium, Vol. 31 (1984), 177–188.
65.   Nobuo Tanaka, Ken-ichi Ohshima, Jimpei Harada and J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution observations of short-range ordering in disordered Au4Mn alloys', Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G.W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1984), 426–427.
66.   Nobuo Tanaka and J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution electron microscopy of disordered LiFeO2', Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G.W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1984), 430–431.
67.   J. M. Cowley and Z. L. Wang, 'The deflection of electron beams traversing a crystal face', Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G.W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1985), 62–63.
68.   J. A. Lin and J. M. Cowley, 'In-line electron holography in a STEM instrument', Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G.W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1985), 136–137.
69.   G. Y. Fan and J. M. Cowley, 'Auto-correlation analysis of high resolution electron micrographs of near-amorphous thin films', Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G.W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1985), 60–61.
70.   J. M. Cowley, 'A new detector system for the HB5 STEM instrument', Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1985), 134–135.
71.   S. Y. Zhang and J. M. Cowley, 'The observation of MgO–Al interface by HREM and microdiffraction', Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G.W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1985), 240–241.
72.   J. M. Cowley, R. Glaisher, J. A. Lin and H.‑J. Ou, 'Imaging and diffraction modes in scanning transmission electron microscopy', Proceedings of the 44th Annual Meeting EMSA (1986), 684–687.
73.   G.-Y. Fan and J. M. Cowley, 'Soft-ware pattern recognition applied to microdiffraction patterns from a STEM instrument', Proceedings of the 44th Annual Meeting EMSA (1986), 694–695.
74.   G.-Y. Fan and J. M. Cowley, 'Simulations of high resolution images of amorphous silicon films', Proceedings of the 44th Annual Meeting EMSA (1986), 544–545.
75.   L. M. Peng and J. M. Cowley, 'A multislice approach to the RHEED and REM simulation', Proceedings of the 44th Annual Meeting EMSA (1986), 380–381.
76.   J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution imaging and diffraction studies of crystal surfaces', Electron Microscopy 1 (1986), 3–8.
77.   J. M. Cowley, 'Scanning electron microscopy and electron diffraction', Electron Microscopy 1 (1986), 71–74.
78.   H.-J. Ou and J. M. Cowley, 'Investigation of electron-beam induced nucleation by scanning reflection electron microscopy', Electron Microscopy 2 (1986), 1361–1362.
78a. T. Tanji, H. Masaoka, K. Yada and J. M. Cowley, 'Interactions of electron beams with surfaces of small MgO crystals', Electron Microscopy 2 (1986), 1353–1354.
79.   L.-M. Peng, J. M. Cowley and Tung Hsu, 'The surface step: Its strain field and REM image contrast splitting', Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1987), 34–35.
80.   L.-M. Peng, J. M. Cowley and Tung Hsu, 'Effects of surface stress relaxation on reflection electron microscopy images of normal emerging edge dislocations', Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1987), 36–37.
81.   J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Electron beam radiation effects on NiO crystals', Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1987), 176–177.
82.   M. Pan, J. M. Cowley, I. Y. Chan and R. Garcia, 'Structure studies of supported metal catalyst particles by microdiffraction technique', Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1987), 202–203.
83.   Z.-L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'Atomic inner shell excitations with EELS in REM: Pt and Au M4.5 edge shapes modifications in REM', Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1987), 402–403.
84.   Z.-L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'EELS characterization of bulk crystal surfaces in REM: Surfaces microanalysis and surface channelling effect', Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1987), 398–399.
85.   Z.-L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'The dependences of the surface plasmon frequencies on the supported metal particle sizes and shapes', Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1987), 130–131.
86.   Z.-L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'Generation of surface plasmons in a supported metal particle with an external electron beam. I. Quantum theory', Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1987), 404–405.
87.   Z.-L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'Generation of surface plasmons in a supported metal particle with an external electron beam. II. Classical energy loss theory', Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1987), 406–407.
88.   P. R. Swann, J. S. Jones, O. L. Krivanek, D. J. Smith, J. A. Venables and J. M. Cowley, 'UHV conversion of a 300 kV high-resolution electron microscope', Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1987), 136–137.
89.   J. A. Venables, J. M. Cowley and H. S. von Harrach, 'A field-emission STEM for surface studies', Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 90 (IOP Publishing, London, 1987), Chapter 4, 81–84.
90.   J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'SEM and microdiffraction study of the reduction of metal oxides in a STEM instrument', Proceedings of the 46th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1988), 516–517.
91.   J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Ultra-high resolution SEM in a STEM instrument', Proceedings of the 46th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1988), 182–183.
92.   J. M. Cowley and P. A. Crozier, 'Surface resonance channelling in scanning reflection electron microscopy', Proceedings of the 46th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1988), 692–693.
93.   L.-M. Peng, J. M. Cowley and Tung Hsu, 'Identification of dislocations on crystal surfaces', Proceedings of the 46th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1988), 688–689.
94.   L.-M. Peng and J. M. Cowley, 'Reflection monolayer scattering and RHEED diffraction conditions', Proceedings of the 46th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1988), 962–963.
95.   H.-J. Ou and J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution STEM imaging study on high Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x', Proceedings of the 46th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1988), 680–681.
96.   M. Pan and J. M. Cowley, 'The effects of surface absorbed monolayer on electron microdiffraction patterns', Proceedings of the 46th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1988), 32–33.
97.   N. Yao and J. M. Cowley, 'REM and RHEED investigation of the epitaxy of evaporated gold film on a GaAs (110) surface', Proceedings of the 46th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1988), 690–691.
98.   N. Yao and J. M. Cowley, 'Characterization of double contours and twin images in REM', Proceedings of the 46th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1988), 686–687.
99.   M. Gajdardziska-Josifovska and J. M. Cowley, 'A novel technique for studying interface abruptness in a STEM', Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1989), 524–525.
100. M. Gajdardziska-Josifovska and J. M. Cowley, 'Geometrical explanation of parabolas and resonance in electron diffraction', Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1989), 498–499.
101. H.-J. Ou, A. A. Higgs, P. R. Perkes and J. M. Cowley, 'High spatial resolution microanalysis on the (200) nanodiffraction intensity to determine Al concentration of AlGaAs-GaAs MQWS', Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1989), 232–233.
102. G. C. Ndubuisi, J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Annealing effects on the sapphire (0001) surface', Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1989), 544–545.
103. J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'SREM imaging of copper (110) vicinal surfaces', Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1989), 542–543.
104. M. Pan, R. Garcia, D. J. Smith, J. M. Cowley and G. A. Cifredo, 'Electron microscopy study of metal-support interaction in Rh/CeO2 catalysts', Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1989), 478–479.
105. Nan Yao and J. M. Cowley, 'Acceleration voltage effect on electron surface channelling', Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1989), 530–531.
106. Nan Yao and J. M. Cowley, 'Convergence of the incident beam in reflection electron microscopy', Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1989), 378–379.
107. J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Valence electron energy loss spectroscopy in reflection geometry', Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1989), 146–147.
108. J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Scanning reflection electron imaging of crystal surfaces', Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1989), 538–539.
109. P. A. Crozier, J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Secondary electron imaging of MoO3 reduction in a UHV STEM', Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1989), 86–87.
110. P. A. Crozier, J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Microdiffraction from very small crystals', Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1989), 520–521.
111. H.-J. Ou, R. W. Glaisher, J. M. Cowley and H. Morkoc, 'Using the (200) thickness contour to measure the absolute Al concentration of AlxGa1-xAs-GaAs MQWS structures', Proceedings of the Microbeam Analyses Society Meeting (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1989), 480–482.
112. N. Tanaka, K. Mihama, M. Skiff, R. Graham and J. M. Cowley, 'EELS of nano-crystals embedded in MgO', Proceedings of the Materials Research Society 139 (1989), 38–43.
113. H.-J. Ou, A. A. Higgs and J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution STEM images and nanodiffraction patterns on high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x', Proceedings of the Materials Research Society 139 (1989), 223–228.
114. J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution scanning electron microscopy of surfaces', Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress for Electron Microscopy, ed. L. D. Peachey and D. B. Williams (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1990), Vol. 1, 296–297.
115. M. Gajdardziska-Josifovska, P. A. Crozier and J. M. Cowley, 'The influence of annealing on the Topography of (100) and (111) surfaces of MgO', Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress for Electron Microscopy, ed. L. D. Peachey and D. B. Williams (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1990), Vol. 4, 232–233.
116. G. C. Ndubuisi, J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'REM observation of the prismatic faces of sapphire', Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress for Electron Microscopy, ed. L. D. Peachey and D. B. Williams (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1990), Vol. 1, 330–331.
117. P. A. Crozier, M. Gajdardziska-Josifovska and J. M. Cowley, 'Observation of reconstruction on (111) surfaces of MgO', Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress for Electron Microscopy, ed. L. D. Peachey and D. B. Williams (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1990), Vol. 4, 280–281.
118. Nan Yao and J. M. Cowley, 'Characterization of surface resonance conditions for surface imaging', Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress for Electron Microscopy, ed. L. D. Peachey and D. B. Williams (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1990), Vol. 1, 332–333.
119. Nan Yao and J. M. Cowley, 'Inelastic electron scattering and total reflectivity in RHEED', Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress for Electron Microscopy, ed. L. D. Peachey and D. B. Williams (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1990), Vol. 2, 392–393.
120. J. Liu, P. A. Crozier and J. M. Cowley, 'Secondary electron imaging of crystal surface steps', Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress for Electron Microscopy, ed. L. D. Peachey and D. B. Williams (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1990), Vol. 1, 334–335.
121. J. Liu, P. A. Crozier, G. G. Hembree, F. C. H. Luo, J. M. Cowley and J. A. Venables, 'Variation in secondary electron emission from MgO characterized by secondary electron spectroscopy', Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress for Electron Microscopy, ed. L. D. Peachey and D. B. Williams (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1990), Vol. 1, 336–337.
122. Shiyao Wang, M. Gajdardziska-Josifovska and J. M. Cowley, 'Calculation and experimental observations of shadow images from multilayers', Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress for Electron Microscopy, ed. L. D. Peachey and D. B. Williams (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1990), Vol. 4, 440–441.
123. J. Liu, G. E. Spinnler, M. Pan and J. M. Cowley, 'STEM characterization of supported catalyst clusters', Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress for Electron Microscopy, ed. L. D. Peachey and D. B. Williams (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1990), Vol. 4, 294–295.
124. J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'RHEED investigation of oxygen-annealed sapphire (1120) surface', Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1991), 630–631.
125. P. A. Crozier, M. Gajdardziska-Josifovska and J. M. Cowley, 'High spatial resolution elemental analysis of annealed MgO surfaces by reflection energy-loss spectroscopy', Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1991), 622–623.
126. M. Gajdardziska-Josikfovska, J. K. Weiss and J. M. Cowley, 'Energy-filtered convergent beam RHEED rocking curves for cleaved (100) surface of MgO', Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1991), 626–627.
127. M. Gajdardziska-Josifovska, M. R. McCartney and J. M. Cowley, 'UHV electron microscopy study of in-situ annealed (100) surfaces of MgO', Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1991), 624–625.
128. M. A. Gribelyuk and J. M. Cowley, 'Computer analysis of side-band holography in STEM', Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1991), 684–685.
129. J. Liu, L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'REM Observation of Oxygen-annealed rutile (001) Surfaces', Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1991), 646–647.
130. J. M. Cowley, 'Resolution limitations in the electron microscopy of surfaces', Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1991), 482–483.
131. J. M. Cowley, 'Alternative approaches to ultra-high resolution imaging', Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1991), 650–651.
132. Y. Huang and J. M. Cowley, 'Observing dislocations with ADF STEM', Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1991), 668–669.
133. Shi-Yao Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'Probe- shifting method in in-line holography', Proceedings 49th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1991), 682–683.
134. Feng Tsai, Shi-Yao Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'Preliminary study of domain boundaries in barium titanate with high-angle annular dark- field (HAADF) imaging', Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1991), 940–941.
135. M. A. Gribelyuk and J. M. Cowley, 'Determination of imaging conditions in electron holography', Electron Microscopy, Vol. 1, EUREM 92, Granada, Spain (1992), pp. 649–650.
136. N. Yao and J. M. Cowley, 'Diffraction conditions in reflection electron microscopy', Electron Microscopy 1 (Proceedings of the 5th Asia-Pacific Electron Microscopy Conference), ed. K. H. Kuo and Z. H. Zai (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), p. 31.
137. F. Tsai and J. M. Cowley, 'Reflection electron microscopy (REM) of ferroelectric domain boundaries in BaTiO3', Electron Microscopy 1 (Proceedings of the 5th Asia-Pacific Electron Microscopy Conference), ed. K. H. Kuo and Z. H. Zai (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), pp. 46–47.
138. J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Scanning reflection electron microscopy and secondary electron microscopy of crystal surfaces', Electron Microscopy 1 (Proceedings of the 5th Asia- Pacific Electron Microscopy Conference), ed. K. H. Kuo and Z. H. Zai (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), pp. 56–59.
139. F. Tsai, V. Khiznichenko and J. M. Cowley, 'Characterization of domain boundaries in BaTiO3 by transmission electron microscopy', Electron Microscopy 1 (Proceedings 5th Asia-Pacific Electron Microscopy Conference), ed. K. H. Kuo and Z. H. Zai (World Scientific, Singapore, 1992), pp. 426–427.
140. L. Wang, J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Characterization of rutile (110) surface structure by REM', Proceedings 50th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey, J. Bentley and J. A. Small (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1992), Vol. 2, 1462–1463.
141. M. Mankos, S.-Y. Wang, J. K. Weiss and J. M. Cowley, 'New detection system for HAADF and holography in STEM', Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey, J. Bentley and J. A. Small (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1992), Vol. 1, 102–103.
142. S.-Y. Wang, M. Mankos and J. M. Cowley, 'Configured detectors in STEM holography', Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey, J. Bentley and J. A. Small (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1992), Vol. 2, 982–983.
143. S.-Y. Wang, J. K. Weiss and J. M. Cowley, 'Shadow images for in-line holography in STEM', Proeedings of the 50th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey, J. Bentley and J. A. Small (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1992), Vol. 1, 142–143.
144. Yi Huang and J. M. Cowley, 'A RHEED study of Cu3Au (110) surface', Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey, J. Bentley and J. A. Small (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1992), Vol. 2, 1460–1461.
145. Yi Huang and J. M. Cowley, 'Sulphur induced reconstruction on Cu3Au (110) surface', Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey, J. Bentley and J. A. Small (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1992), Vol. 1, 330–331.
146. J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Imaging dislocations with an annular dark-field detector', Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey, J. Bentley and J. A. Small (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1992), Vol. 2, 1224–1225.
147. F. T Sai and J. M. Cowley, 'Observation of ferroelectric domain boundaries in PZT (52/48) with transmission electron microscopy (TEM)', Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey, J. Bentley and J. A. Small (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1992), Vol. 1, 370–371.
148. Feng Tsai, Victoria Khiznichenko and J. M. Cowley, 'In-situ observation of the behaviors of ferroelectric domains in BaTiO3 under applied electric fields with transmission electron microscopy (TEM)', Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting EMSA, ed. G. W. Bailey, J. Bentley and J. A. Small (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1992), Vol. 1, 348–349.
149. J. M. Cowley and M. A. Gribelyuk, 'High- resolution coherent imaging in STEM', Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting MSA, ed. G. W. Bailey and C. L. Rieder (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1993), 1082–1083.
150. L. Wang, J. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Zero-loss energy filtered REM and RHEED observations on rutile (110) surface', Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting MSA, ed. G. W. Bailey and C. L. Rieder (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1993), 968–969.
151. M. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'TEM study on the thermostability of hafnium carbide dispersoids in tungsten at ultrahigh temperatures', Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting MSA, ed. G. W. Bailey and C. L. Rieder (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1993), 1170–1171.
152. M. Liu and J. M. Cowley, 'Growth behavior and structures of carbon nanotubes', Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting MSA, ed. G. W. Bailey and C. L. Rieder (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1993), 752–753.
153. M. Mankos, J. M. Cowley, R. V. Chamberlin, M. Scheinfein and J. D. Ayers, 'STEM of order and dynamics in novel magnetic materials', Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting MSA, ed. G. W. Bailey and C. L. Rieder (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1993), 1026–1027.
154. F. Tsai and J. M. Cowley, 'Contrasts of planar defects in reflection electron microscopy', Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting MSA, ed. G. W. Bailey and C. L. Rieder (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1993), 1004–1005.
155. F. Tsai and J. M. Cowley, 'Grain boundaries in ceramics for solid oxide fuel cells', Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting MSA, ed. G. W. Bailey and C. L. Rieder (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1993), 960–961.
156. M. R. Scheinfein, J. S. Drucker, J. Liu, J. K. Weiss, G. G. Hembree and J. M. Cowley, 'The origins of high spatial resolution secondary electron microscopy', Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium 295 (1993), 253–259.
157. M. Liu, J. M. Cowley, B. L. Ramakrishna, T. S. Peace, A. K. Wertsching and M. R. Pena, 'A bonded metal fulleride structure in the PdnC60 system', Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting Microscopy Society of America, ed. G. W. Bailey and A. J. Garratt- Reed (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1994), 768–769.
158. F. Tsai and J. M. Cowley, 'Thickness dependence of ferroelectric domains in thin ferroelectric crystals', Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting, Microscopy Society of America, ed. G. W. Bailey and A. J. Garratt- Reed (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1994), 562–563.
159. F. Tsai and J. M. Cowley, 'Reflection electron microscopy of ferroelectric domains', Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting, Microscopy Society of America, ed. G. W. Bailey and A. J. Garratt-Reed (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1994), 568–569.
160. Y. Huang, M. Gajdardziska-Josifovska and J. M. Cowley, 'Surface morphology change induced by bulk order-disorder transition in Cu3Au alloy', Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting, Microscopy Society of America, ed. G. W. Bailey and A. J. Garratt- Reed (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1994), 804–805.
161. Y. Huang and J. M. Cowley, 'SEM and SAM observation of S-absorbed Cu3Au(110) surface', Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting, Microscopy Society of America, ed. G. W. Bailey and A. J. Garratt-Reed (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1994), 812–813.
162. Y. Huang and J. M. Cowley, 'The long-period structure on ordering-alloy surfaces', Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting, Microscopy Society of America, ed. G. W. Bailey and A. J. Garratt-Reed (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1994), 816–817.
163. M. Mankos, G. Matteucci, M. R. Scheinfein and J. M. Cowley, 'STEM holography of small magnetic particles', Proceedings of the International Conference on Electron Microscopy, 13, Paris (1994), 1179–1180.
164. L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'REM and RHEED observation of superstructures on reduced rutile surfaces', Electron Microscopy (Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Electron Microscopy, Cancun, Mexico, 1998), ed. H. A. C. Benavedes and M. J. Yacaman, Volume III, 717–718.

3. Review articles and book chapters

1.     J. M. Cowley and A. L. G. Rees, 'Fourier methods in structure analysis by electron diffraction', Rep. Progr. Phys. 21 (1958), 165–225.
2.     J. M. Cowley, 'Crystal structure determination by electron diffraction', Progr. Mater. Sci. 13, 6 (1967), 269.
3.     J. M. Cowley, 'Dynamical effects in electron diffraction', Acta Geologica et Geographica Universitatis Comeniae, Nr. 14 (1968), 86.
4.     J. M. Cowley, 'Intensities of single-crystal electron diffraction patterns', Acta Geol. Geograph. Universitais Comeniae 14 (1968), 104–115.
5.     J. M. Cowley, 'Electron diffraction by crystal imperfections and disorder', Acta Geol. Geograph. Universitais Comeniae 14 (1968), 117–124.
6.     J. M. Cowley and P. M. Warburton, 'Intensities in reflection electron diffraction patterns', in The Structure and Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, ed. Gabor A. Somorjai (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1969), pp. 61–69.
7.     J. M. Cowley, 'Short-range ordering in crystals', in Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Vol. 3, ed. L. Eyring (Academic Press, New York, 1971), pp. 36–85.
8.     J. M. Cowley and Stephen Wilkins, 'Derivation of long-range interaction energies from diffuse scattering in diffraction patterns', in Interatomic Potentials and Simulation of Lattice Defects, ed. P. C. Gehlen, J. R. Beeler and R. I. Jaffee (Plenum Press, New York, 1972), pp. 265–280.
9.     J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution electron microscopy of defects and disorder in crystals', in Defects and Transport in Oxides, ed. M. S. Seltzer and R. I. Jaffee (Plenum Press, New York, 1974), pp. 205–224.
10.   J. M. Cowley, 'The principles of high resolution electron microscopy', in Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy: Biological Applications, Vol. 5, ed. M. A. Hayat (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1974), pp. 40–84.
12.   J. M. Cowley, 'Implications of non-kinematic and inelastic scattering of electrons for structure analysis', in Anomalous Scattering, ed. S. Ramaseshan and S. C. Abrahams (Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 1975), pp. 113–125.
13.   W. H. Massover and J. M. Cowley, 'Ultrastructure of ferritin and apoferritin', in Proteins of Iron Storage and Transport in Biochemistry and Medicine, ed. R. R. Creighton (North Holland Publishing, 1975), pp. 237–244.
14.   J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution electron microscopy of inorganic materials, in Annual Reviews of Materials Science, Vol. 6, ed. R. A. Huggins (Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, 1976), pp. 53–81.
15.   J. M. Cowley and Sumio Iijima, 'The direct imaging of crystal structures', in Electron Microscopy in Mineralogy, ed. H.R. Wenk (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1976), pp. 123–136.
16.   J. M. Cowley and Sumio Iijima, 'Electron microscopy of atoms in crystals', Phys. Today 30, 3 (1977), 32–40.
17.   J. M. Cowley, 'Diffraction by crystalline solids', Trans. Am. Crystallog. Assoc. 13 (1977), 15–30.
18.   J. M. Cowley, 'Crystal structure determination using electron diffraction', in Electron Diffraction 1927–1977, ed. P. J. Dobson, J. B. Pendry and C. J. Humphreys (Institute of Physics Conference Series, London, No. 41, 1978), Ch. 3, pp. 156–166.
19.   J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution electron microscopy of crystal defects and surfaces', in Annual Reviews of Physical Chemistry 29 (1978), 251–283.
20.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron microdiffraction', in Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics 46, ed. L. Marton (Academic Press, New York, 1978), pp. 1–53.
21.   J. M. Cowley, 'Scanning transmission electron microscopy', Am. Laboratory 10, 10 (1978) 59–67.
22.   J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution electron microscopy of crystals, today and tomorrow', J. Crystallog. Soc. Japan 20 (1978), 241–259.
23.   J. M. Cowley, 'Retrospective introduction: What are modulated structures', in Modulated Structure–1979 (Kailua Kona, Hawaii), ed. J. M. Cowley, J. B. Cohen, M. B. Salamon and B. J. Wuensch (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1979), pp. 3–9.
24.   J. M. Cowley, 'Principals of image formation', in Introduction to Analytical Electron Microscopy, ed. J. J. Hren, J. I. Goldstein and D. C. Joy (Plenum Press, New York, 1979), pp. 1–42.
25.   J. M. Cowley, 'High resolution electron microscopy of crystalline materials', Am. Laboratory 12 (1980), 21–30.
26.   J. M. Cowley, 'Surface imaging and analysis with reflection diffracted electrons', in Microbeam Analysis 1980, ed. D. B. Wittry (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1980), pp. 33–35.
27.   J. M. Cowley, 'Optical processing of diffraction information in STEM', Scanning Electron Microscopy, ed. O. Johari (Illinois, AMF O'Hare, 1980), pp. 61–72.
28.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron microdiffraction and microscopy of amorphous solids', in Diffraction Studies of Non-crystalline Substance, ed. I. Hargittai and W. J. Orville-Thomas (Akademia Kiado, Budapest/Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, 1981), pp. 847–891.
29.   I. Y. T. Chan, J. M. Cowley and R. W. Carpenter, 'Instrumentation and applications of convergent beam microdiffraction', in Analytical Electron Microscopy 1981, ed. R. H. Geiss (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1981), pp. 107–116.
30.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron microscopy', Anal. Chem. 54, 5 (1982), R83–R86.
31.   J. M. Cowley, 'High energy electron diffraction in America', in Crystallography in North America, ed. D. McLachlan and J. P. Glusker (American Crystallographic Association, 1983), Chapter 9, pp. 241–245.
32.   J. M. Cowley, 'The crystallographic aspects of electron microscopy', in Crystallography in North America, ed. D. McLachlan and J. P. Glusker (American Crystallographic Association, 1983), Chapter 10, pp. 246–249.
33.   J. M. Cowley, 'The use of scanning transmission electron microscopes to study surfaces and small particles', in Catalytic Materials: Relationship between Structure and Reactivity, ed. T. E. Whyte, R. A. D. Betta, E. G. Derouane and R. T. K. Baker (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1984), pp. 353–366.
34.   Tung Hsu and J. M. Cowley, 'Reflection electron microscopy studies of crystal lattice termination at surfaces', in The Structure of Surfaces, ed. M. A. Van Hove and S. Y. Tong (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 55–62.
35.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron microscopy and diffraction techniques for the study of small particles', in The New Surface Science in Catalysis, ACS Symposium Series no. 288, 1985, pp. 329–340.
36.   J. M. Cowley, 'Principles of image formation', in Principles of Analytical Electron Microscopy, ed. D. C. Joy, A. D. Romig and J. I. Goldstein (Plenum Press, New York, 1986), pp. 77–122.
37.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron microscopy (non- biological)', Anal. Chem. 58 (1986), 65R–68R.
38.   J. M. Cowley, 'Reflection electron microscopy', in Surface and Interface Characterization by Electron Optical Methods, ed. A. Howie and U. Valdre (Plenum Press, New York/London, 1988), pp. 127–158.
39.   J. M. Cowley, 'Reflection electron microscopy in TEM and STEM instruments', in Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction and Reflection Electron Imaging of Surfaces, ed. P. K. Larsen and P. J. Dobson (Plenum Press, New York/London, 1988), pp. 261–284.
40.   J. M. Cowley, 'Imaging', in High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (Oxford University Press, New York/Oxford, 1988), pp. 1–37.
41.   J. M. Cowley, 'Imaging theory', in High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (Oxford University Press, New York/Oxford, 1988), pp. 38–57.
42.   J. M. Cowley, 'Elastic scattering of electrons by crystals', in High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (Oxford University Press, New York/Oxford, 1988), pp. 58–108.
43.   J. M. Cowley, 'Elastic scattering theory', in High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (Oxford University Press, New York/Oxford, 1988), pp. 109–128.
44.   J. M. Cowley, 'Multislice methods for surface diffraction and inelastic scattering', in Computer Simulation of Electron Microscope Diffraction and Images, ed. W. Krakow and M. O'Keefe (The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 1989), pp. 1–12.
45.   J. M. Cowley, 'Scanning microscopy at ASU', EMSA Bulletin 21, 1 (1991), 57–61.
46.   M. Gajdardziska-Josifovska, P. A. Crozier and J. M. Cowley, 'Characterization of (100) and (111) surfaces of MgO by reflection electron microscopy', in The Structure of Surfaces III, ed. S. Y. Tong, M. A. Van Hove, K. Takayanagi and X. D. Xie (Springer-Verlag, Berlin/ Heidelberg, 1991), pp. 660–664.
47.   J. M. Cowley, 'Introduction: principles and practice of electron microscopy', Chapter 1 of Physical Methods of Chemistry, Volume 4, ed. B. W. Rosseter and J. F. Hamilton (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991), pp.1–50.
48.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron microscopy of defects in crystals (medium resolution)', Chapter 3 of Physical Methods of Chemistry, Volume 4, ed. B. W. Rosseter and J. F. Hamilton (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991), pp. 85–114.
49.   J. M. Cowley, 'Special electron microscopy techniques', Chapter 7 of Physical Methods of Chemistry, Volume 4, ed. B. W. Rosseter and J. F. Hamilton (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991), pp. 239–284.
50.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron diffraction', in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics, Vol. 5, ed. George L. Trigg (VCH Publishers, 1993).
51.   J. M. Cowley, 'Powder and related techniques: Electron techniques', Section 2.4.1 of International Tables for Crystallography, Vol. C, ed. A. J. C. Wilson (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1992), pp. 80–82.
52.   J. M. Cowley, 'Scattering factors for the diffraction of electrons by crystalline solids', Sections 4.3.1 and 4.3.2 of International Tables for Crystallography, Vol. C, ed. A. J. C. Wilson (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1992), pp. 223–245.
53.   J. C. H. Spence and J. M. Cowley, 'Crystal structure determination by high-resolution electron microscopy', Section 4.3.8 of International Tables for Crystallography, Vol. C, ed. A. J. C. Wilson (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1992), pp. 365–373.
54.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron diffraction: an introduction', Chapter 1 of Electron Diffraction Techniques, Vol. 1, ed. J. M. Cowley (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1992), pp. 1–74.
55.   J. M. Cowley, 'Diffraction and imaging in electron microscopy', Chapter 3 of Electron Diffraction Techniques, Vol. 1, ed. J. M. Cowley (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1992), pp. 152–169.
56.   J. M. Cowley, 'Coherent convergent beam diffraction', Chapter 9 of Electron Diffraction Techniques, Vol. 1, ed. J. M. Cowley (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1992), pp. 439–464.
57.   J. M. Cowley and A. F. Moodie, 'Paul Ewald and the dynamical theory of electron scattering', in Paul Ewald and His Dynamical Theory of X-ray Diffraction, ed. D. W. J. Cruickshank, H. J. Juretschke and N. Kato (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1992), pp. 76–89.
58.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron crystallography: an introduction', MSA Bulletin 23 (1993), 1–10.
59.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron diffraction and electron microscopy in structure determination: Foreword', Section 2.5 of International Tables for Crystallography, Vol. B, ed. U. Shmueli (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1993), pp. 280–281.
60.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron diffraction and electron microscopy', Section 2.5.1 of International Tables for Crystallography, Vol. B, ed. U. Shmueli (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1993), pp. 281–289.
61.   J. M. Cowley and J. Gjønnes, 'Diffuse scattering in electron diffraction', Section 4.3 of International Tables for Crystallography, Vol. B, ed. U. Shmueli (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1993), pp. 434–440.
62.   A. F. Moodie, J. M. Cowley and P. Goodman, 'Dynamical theory of electron diffraction', Section 5.2 of International Tables for Crystallography, Vol. B, ed. U. Shmueli (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1993), pp. 481–486.
63.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron microscopy', in Handbook of Surface Imaging and Visualization, ed. A.T. Hubbard (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1995), pp. 131–155.
64.   J. M. Cowley, 'Applications of electron holography', in Handbook of Advanced Materials Testing, ed. N. P. Cheremisinoff and P. N. Cheremisinoff (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), pp. 155–180.
65.   M. Mankos, P. de Haan, V. Kambersky, G. Matteuci, M. R. McCartney, Z. Yang, M. R. Scheinfein and J. M. Cowley, 'STEM holography of magnetic materials', in Electron Holography, ed. A. Tonomura, L. F. Allard, G. Pozzi, D. C. Joy and Y. A. Ono (Elsevier Science BV, 1995), pp. 329–341.
66.   Marian Mankos, M. R. Scheinfein and J. M. Cowley, 'Electron holography and Lorenz microscopy of magnetic materials', Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 98 (1996), 323–426.
67.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron nanodiffraction: progress and prospects', J. Electron Microsc. 45 (1996), 3–10.
68.   J. M. Cowley, 'Bragg's Law', in MacMillan Encyclopedia of Physics, ed. J. S. Rigden (Macmillan Publishing, New York, 1996), Vol. 1, pp. 144–147.
69.   J. M. Cowley, 'Scanning transmission electron microscopy', in Handbook of Microscopy: Vol. 2, Methods II, ed. S. Amelinckx, D. Van Dyck, J. F. Van Landuyt and G. Van Tenderloo (VCH Verlag, Weinheim, 1997), pp. 563–594.
70.   J. M. Cowley, 'Reflection electron microscopy', in Handbook of Microscopy,Vol. 1, Methods I, ed. S. Amelinckx, D. Van Dyck, J. F. Van Landuyt and G. Van Tenderloo (VCH Verlag, Weinheim, 1997), pp. 407–424.
71.   J. M. Cowley and J. C. H. Spence, 'Principles and theory of electron holography', Chapter 2 in Introduction to Electron Holography, ed. E. Vólkl, L. F. Allard and D. C. Joy (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht/Plenum Publishers, New York, 1998), pp. 17–56.
72.   F. Lenz and J. M. Cowley, 'A plus or minus sign in the Fourier transform', in Introduction to Electron Holography, ed. E. Vólkl, L. F. Allard and D. C. Joy (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht/Plenum Publishers, New York, 1998), pp. 333–338.
73.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron nanodiffraction and STEM imaging of nanoparticles and nanotubes'. in Advances in Metal and Semiconductor Clusters, Vol. IV, Cluster Materials, ed. Michael A. Duncan (JAI Press, Greenwich, CT, 1998), pp. 68–11.
74.   L. Wang and J. M. Cowley, 'REM and RHEED observation of superstructures on reduced rutile surfaces', in Electron Microscopy 1998 (Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Electron Microscopy, Cancun, Mexico, 1998), ed. H. A. C. Benavedes and M. J. Yacaman, Volume III, pp. 717–718.
75.   J. M. Cowley and J. C. H. Spence, 'Nanodiffraction', in Handbook of Nanostructured
Materials and Nanotechnology, Vol. 2, ed. H. S. Nalwa (Academic Press, San Diego, 2000), pp. 1–87.
76.   J. M. Cowley, 'The quest for ultra-high resolution', in Progress in Transmission Electron Microscopy. I. Concepts and Techniques, ed. Xiao-feng Zhang and Ze Zhang (Springer- Verlag/Tsinghua Umiversity Press, 2001), pp. 35–79.
77.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron microscopy and diffraction of surfaces', in Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science, ed. A. Hubbard (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002), pp. 1951–1964.
78.   J. M. Cowley, 'Nanodiffraction of carbon nanotubes', in Electron Microscopy of Nanotubes and Nanowires, ed. Z. L. Wang and C. Hui (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
79.   J. M. Cowley, 'Electron diffraction', in Optics Encyclopedia, ed. A. Grossmann (Wiley VCH Verlag, Berlin, in press).

4. Authored books

1.     J. M. Cowley, Diffraction Physics (North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1975). 410 pp.
2.     J. M. Cowley, Diffraction Physics, second revised edition. (North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1981). 430 pp.
3.     J. M. Cowley, Diffraction Physics, third revised edition. (North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1995). 481 pp.

5. Edited books

1.     J. M. Cowley, J. B. Cohen, M. B. Salamon and B. J. Wuensch, eds, Modulated Structures–1979 (Kailuakona, Hawaii) (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1979).
2.     P. R. Buseck, J. M. Cowley and L. Eyring, eds, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Associated Techniques (Oxford University Press, New York/Oxford, 1988). 645 pp.
3.     J. M. Cowley, ed., Electron Diffraction Techniques, Vol. 1 (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1992). 584 pp.
4.     J. M. Cowley, ed., Electron Diffraction Techniques, Vol. 2 (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1993). 423 pp.

A. F. Moodie, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (corresponding author)
J. C. H. Spence, Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, USA