BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS

Clifford Walter Emmens, 1913-1999

This memoir was originally published in Historical Records of Australian Science, vol.15, no.1, 2004.

Introduction

Clifford Walter Emmens (known to us as Cliff, but only in later years when he had mellowed!) was born on 19 December 1913, in Peckham. London, UK, the youngest of three children. His father was Walter James Emmens, an Insurance Loss Assessor ,and his mother was Narissa Louise (née Pugh). The family moved to Purley, Surrey when Emmens was 10 and he describes how he developed there the early interest in pond life that was to foreshadow his later academic pursuits in biology and his recreational activities as an aquarist. His early schooling was at the Purley County School for Boys, obviously a good one as in his final year it obtained the three top scholarships to the University of London’s Agricultural College at Wye in Kent. Emmens was awarded one of these. Evidently not liking Agriculture at that stage, he transferred in his second year to University College, London with an Honours major in zoology and a subsidiary in physiology. He was awarded a BSc(Hons) in 1935, followed by a MSc in 1936. He registered for a PhD under Sir Henry Dale in 1937 and completed the degree in 1939. He was awarded his DSc from the same institution on 9 May 1947.

After graduation, he joined the National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR) at Hampstead —described by Emmens as ‘the ‘ouse of ‘orror on the ‘ill’ — and soon earned an enviable reputation for his prodigious research effort and output. He married Muriel Edith Bristow, a ballet dancer and daughter of Henry Roderick Bristow and May Bristow (née Savell), in 1937. The marriage resulted in four children, Jane (b. 1941), Roger Leonard (b.d. 1942), Harriet (b. 1943) and Roger Lyle (b. 1951, d. 1993). During the Second World War, Emmens was seconded to join Zuckerman at Oxford to study the effects of bombing on morale, and was subsequently seconded to the RAF as an Honorary Wing Commander to join various bombing assessment units, where his biometrical skills proved invaluable.

After the war, Emmens returned to the NIMR, only to be enticed to the University of Sydney in 1948 to set up a Department of Veterinary Physiology. He was appointed to the Chair in 1950. In a very few years, his extraordinary administrative and scientific skills resulted in the establishment of a formidable department with a staff of more than fifty, largely funded by external sources. A unique aspect of the department was that the research interests of all members involved reproduction. Throughout his career he encouraged both staff and students to follow emerging areas in reproductive biology. Examples of these were developmental biology, hypothalamo/hypophyseal control of gonadal activity and the biochemistry of steroid hormone action. No sooner did he have the department up and producing than he was invited in 1952 to set up the Sheep Biology Laboratory at Prospect, later to become the CSIRO Division of Animal Production. For some time, he ran both the department and the Prospect Laboratory simultaneously.

Although his early research interests in Sydney showed a concentration on the freezing of semen, particularly of the ram and bull, and on artificial insemination (AI), he soon turned his attention once more to various aspects of oestrogens and antioestrogens. The aim was to discover a compound that possessed antifertility activity without significant side effects. This work was substantially supported by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations, as well as by several drug companies. The problems experienced with thalidomide and other compounds meant support for such work declined and he turned in his later years to more basic investigations on the nature of the oestrous cycle, with a comparative emphasis.

Emmens contributed very significantly to Australian and international science. He was elected to the Australian Academy of Science in 1956 and served on its Council between 1965 and 1968. His roles as President of the Endocrine Society of Australia (twice), Chairman of the Australian Society for Reproductive Biology, Section President of ANZAAS, President of the 2nd Asia & Oceania Congress of Endocrinology, a member of the Biological Sciences Sub-committee of the Australian Research Grants Commission and Chairman of the Board of Standards of the CSIRO Australian Science Journals are just some examples of his contributions. He retired in 1978 and spent many of the next twenty years on his life-long interest as an aquarist. During this time he wrote ten books on the subject and also had many articles published in aquarists’ magazines. Cliff Emmens died in Sydney on 18 June 1999 and is survived by two daughters. An obituary in Tropical Fish Hobbyist reads in part ‘scientist, teacher, author, aquarist, judo black belt, ballroom dancer’, an apt summary of this complex and remarkable man. What could have been added is that he was a much respected and admired colleague.

Early Days at the National Institute for Medical Research

In 1935, Emmens graduated with a science degree in Zoology with Physiology as a subsidiary. During his undergraduate days, he met J.B.S. Haldane and R.A. Fisher. These between them converted Emmens to an interest in biometry, an interest that probably got him his first job at the National Institute of Medical Research that he took up in 1937. This position was to join the team headed by A.S. Parkes. To accept the position, Emmens had to break off his then PhD studies being supervised by M.J. D. White and accept a MSc. However, given the country’s economy in the ’30s and the lack of jobs in biology, Emmens counted himself lucky. His job in collaboration with the chemist R.K. Callow was to investigate the excretion of sex hormones in humans and to establish reliable bioassays for them. Initial work with faeces was rapidly abandoned and after prodigious efforts Emmens was able to show that even male and female urine could not be distinguished! Luckily, the development of bioassays geared in with the setting-up of various International Standards for steroids and gonadotrophins. For a time he was kept busy collating and analysing co-operative assays. He recorded a triumph for statistical analysis when he was able to show that in one case the contributions to the standard had not been adequately mixed. Subsequently he was able to re-enrol as a PhD candidate under Sir Henry Dale’s supervision. He completed the degree in 1939 with a thesis entitled ‘Studies on the biological activity of gonadal hormones’.

The late 1930s and early 1940s were periods of great developments in endocrinology. Emmens’ own contributions at first stemmed from bioassays but later developed into looking at the nature of oestrogenic activity. The animals used in bioassay — mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, chicks and capons — were explored in various ways to determine the effects of the route of administration, solvents and so on, and, in the case of mice, the use of inbred stocks. Oddly, as it then seemed, inbred mice proved to be more variable than randomly bred ones. This was the time of the discovery of diethylstilboestrol (DES) by E.C. Dodds and his colleagues, and they provided Emmens with many synthetic compounds for testing. Perhaps his most exciting discovery during this period was of synthetic precursors of oestrogens that were not themselves active but after metabolism in the body became so. He called these compounds pro-oestrogens.

The War Years

Emmens stayed on in the Institute’s laboratories for a couple of years after the outbreak of war, having been promised work of national importance, but none ever came. When zoologists in the Institute were called up but he was not, Emmens asked the Director, Sir Henry Dale, for an explanation. Dale had none and sent Emmens off in the Institute’s official vehicle to visit the local labour exchange to find out. There, the queue of gentlemen on various errands was astonished to see a young man arrive in a government car with chauffeur to demand why he had not been conscripted. Reason: Emmens was classified as a chemist and was still exempt. However, in 1941, enquiries for Emmens’ transfer from the National Institute of Medical Research to the Ministry of Home Security’s Department of Research and Experiments, to work with Solly Zuckerman in his Oxford Extra-Mural Unit studying the effects of bombing, commenced. At this time, Zuckerman approached Sir Henry Dale about Emmens’ availability and Dale was sympathetic, admitting that Emmens was restive without something more definite in the way of war work. However, Sir Edward Mellanby, Secretary of the MRC, was reluctant to release Emmens as Emmens’ primary duties were in experimental endocrinology, not statistics (for which subject, however, he did admit Emmens had a definite flair). In a letter to Dale, Mellanby described Emmens as a very promising physiologist and suggested that Emmens’ move into definite war work should be in the area where he could use his physiological ability to the utmost, so he made no move on the request for statistical help at the Ministry. Little then happened until May 1942, when the case for Emmens’ assistance to Zuckerman was resurrected in a letter from Dale to Mellanby. In this letter, Dale stated that Emmens felt that work for Zuckerman was of more national importance than his present work and recommended that he be released to take up a temporary appointment with Zuckerman. The Ministry of Home Security reconfirmed its desire to have Emmens’ services. Dale then contacted Zuckerman with a proposal for the transfer, on the proviso that if the work was completed or the Institute needed Emmens’ services, the Institute had the right to ask for his release and return to the Institute. Zuckerman agreed to these conditions in a letter to Dale dated 26 June 1942.

Initially Emmens was asked to tackle the problem of assessing morale in Germany. The Foreign Office was pressing for air raids in South Germany as they believed that it was a soft region capable of a breakdown in morale. Their assessments were based on intelligence reports, newspapers from the area and so on. It was easy to show, via the Ministry of Home Security, that similar data could be used to form the same picture in British cities, yet no breakdown in morale was happening. So the bombing was not diverted at that period.

Zuckerman’s many friends in the American and British forces led to his being invited to survey and advise on bombing in the Mediterranean. Emmens, along with others from the Oxford unit, joined him and were given honorary commissions in the RAF. This group was joined by others to form the Bombing Survey Unit, based in recently occupied Palermo. There were some twenty officers and fifty other ranks, with teams swarming over Sicily and later Italy, studying the effects of bombing on towns, airfields and communications. It became more and more apparent that bombing cities was much less effective than bombing communications, even with poor bombing accuracy. This conclusion was at odds with the directives from the British Air Ministry and the policies of the commander of Bomber Command, Air Marshal Sir Arthur ‘Bomber’ Harris, who was convinced that the strategy of ‘area bombing’ of entire German cities was the more appropriate tactic.

Emmens, with the help of Squadron Leader Ford who commanded the RAF regulars, was in charge of the Bombing Survey Unit for part of its existence. The work was aided by a galaxy of talent, including Frank Yates the statistician, Peter Krohn and Sandy Thomson, both to become Professors of Medicine, and many others. Their work enabled Zuckerman to convince Tedder and Eisenhower of the importance of communications bombing.

In May 1944, Emmens left the Unit and returned to Oxford, writing up reports and wondering about D-day. When it arrived, a new Bombing Analysis Unit was formed and he was back in uniform and off to the Normandy beaches with many of his former colleagues. At first they studied troop support bombing and eventually gravitated to Paris to repeat in even greater detail the earlier work. To quote the Air Ministry in March 1945: ‘The work of the Bombing Analysis Unit is absolutely vital for the development of future air weapons. On it would depend the formulation of future requirements and also of future Air Staff policy.’ This Unit collaborated with the Americans, as had the Bombing Strategy Unit, but this time there was fuller integration of activities, while still producing independent reports often from common data. About fifty reports, each like a scientific paper, were produced. Perhaps this level of scientific precision was a mistake, as many staff officers who could have benefited from them did not understand the reports.

At the end of hostilities, the British Bombing Survey Unit was formed and was able, from German records, to compare various estimates of the effects of the bombing made by RAF Bomber Command, the Ministry of Aircraft Production, the Foreign Office and the scientists using the facts as recorded by the Germans. According to Emmens, the scientists came out of it very well and were nearer to the truth than any others, whose estimates were in general excessive. He was in charge of the survey of town bombing, which made it clear that until the chaos in Germany right at the end of the war, the Allied offensive had had little effect on either morale or production. Concentration on communications or fuel at an earlier stage would have been much more useful. At the start of the war, towns were about all that could be hit but, according to Emmens, rigorous training for greater accuracy and a switch to other targets should have followed.

Some indication of the esteem in which Emmens was held by the senior scientific community around this time can be gauged by the following quotations from a letter written by Sir Henry Dale to Professor C.R. Harrington, then at the University College Hospital Medical School, London, but soon to follow Dale as Director of the National Institute of Medical Research: ‘I take the opportunity to put on record, what I may already have expressed to you verbally, my impression that Emmens ought to find a position of permanent usefulness and distinction in the Institute’s future. From quite early days, and especially in connection with Biological Standards and their application, I have been impressed with the value of the statistical guidance and criticism in the planning and interpreting of quantitative biological experiments…I recommend you, however, to keep an eye on him, as a man who would be likely to perform a function, in relation to the researches in the Institute, far beyond the range of the immediate problems of Parkes’ sub-department, in connection with which he was engaged.’ (Dale to Harrington, 4 September 1942). It is not surprising, therefore, that in the following year, as the new Director, Harrington encouraged Emmens to accept the invitation to write a monograph on the application of statistical methods to experimental biology in a series on laboratory techniques. This ultimately led to the publication by Chapman and Hall of his monograph, Principles of Biological Assay. It was written in the war years but not published until 1949. It sold well and was even translated into Japanese. Emmens’ personal typist for writing the book was a gifted young lady named Beryl Turner who, according to Emmens, could take down an analysis of variance by dictation and get it perfect.

Emmens’ Return to the National Institute of Medical Research

By 1946, the Institute was extremely anxious for Emmens’ return to Parkes’ laboratory. Emmens shared this desire and returned to the laboratory that year. Parkes had in the meantime developed an interest in spermatozoa that eventually lead to deep freezing and Emmens mainly joined in experiments on factors affecting the survival and activity of sperm, with excursions into other work where statistical techniques were needed. He introduced factorial design and analysis and various other designs into thyroid assays, assays of diets for mice, and so on. At this time, he was also allowed by the Director to accept an invitation to join the committee of the Pharmacopoeia Commission dealing with biological standardization.

In 1947, there were indications that Emmens was getting itchy feet and had approached Zuckerman about university posts in the UK. Then in October of that year, Professor H.R. Carne, Dean of the Faculty of Veterinary Science at the University of Sydney, wrote to Harrington telling him of the establishment of a Department of Veterinary Physiology within the Faculty. The Faculty had decided to make an initial appointment for two years’ duration, with the likelihood that a Chair would be created at the end of that period. Professor Carne went on to say that from opinions of men in England and of visiting Australian colleagues, Emmens would fill the needs admirably and that his letter was to inform Harrington of the University’s decision to send an official invitation to Emmens to accept the position.

Emmens’ interest in Australia had been awakened by his association with C.R. Austin, a guest worker at the Institute from the then CSIR in Sydney. Thus, when he received the offer to set up the new department at the University of Sydney, it did not take him too long to accept.

To Sydney

In March 1948, Emmens, his wife Muriel and their two young daughters set sail for Australia in the Nestor, a journey that was to take nine weeks! One wonders what his thoughts were when he saw for the first time the rather depressing fibro-cement building (later to be known as the Ross Street Building) that was to be the home for his department for the next 25 years. Some staff were already in post: Ian White a biochemist, Alan Blackshaw and John Biggers (both vets) and Ron Penn, a technician from the physiology department in London. Their task had been to prepare for his arrival and particularly to prepare for the teaching of physiology to veterinary students. The old guard of the veterinary profession did not overly welcome his arrival. ‘Emmens was not a vet, was not a blood and guts physiologist, was not even a physiologist’ writes Ian White describing the attitude. This attitude of the old guard continued to plague Emmens and on at least two occasions they blocked his election to Dean of the Faculty. Perhaps if they had acted differently he would soon have been lost to the Faculty, moving on to higher administrative and/or scientific activities. However Carne, who was still Dean, and other senior colleagues in the University warmly welcomed him.

Initially teaching was restricted to third- year veterinary students, their early physiology being taught with medical students. Within a few years, however, there were courses given to veterinary students in their second and third years and to some animal- specialist Agriculture students in their third year. The broad aspects of these courses remained unchanged for many years until recent extensive curriculum reviews in both the veterinary and agricultural faculties, an indication that Emmens and colleagues ‘got it right’ from the start. Veterinary and Agriculture Faculties across the nation later adopted many aspects of these courses.

Emmens’ ability as a top class administrator was exemplified by his being seconded part-time between 1952 and 1954 as Officer-in-Charge of the CSIRO Sheep Biology Laboratory at Prospect (later to become the Division of Animal Physiology, then Production) until Ian McDonald became Chief of the new Division.

On retirement, Emmens was elected an honorary Fellow of the Australian College of Veterinary Science and awarded an honorary DVSc by the University of Sydney in recognition to his contributions to research and teaching in veterinary science. He was also awarded the Oliver Bird Medal (UK) and the Istituto Spallanzini Medal during his career.

Research in Sydney

Emmens wasted no time in organizing an extensive research programme and was aided by the quality of the people he attracted. He was partly employed to raise the poor research profile of the Faculty and that he did with vigour. In no time the research output from the fledgling department exceeded that of the rest of the Faculty. This gave him great pride. He was aided by an enlightened attitude by grant- giving bodies such as the Wool and Meat Boards, the Hunter District Dairy Co-operative and the State Cancer Council among others, who all recognised that progress with applied research required significant support of the relevant basic science. Would that such an attitude prevailed today!

Early research on semen freezing and AI essentially took off from where Emmens had left it with Alan Parkes at the NIMR. With Allan Blackshaw and later Ian Martin, this work concentrated on obtaining both suitable freeze/thaw conditions for ram and bull semen and also AI techniques, with the ultimate goal of live births as desired. This approach did not initially appear to worry Parkes but the publication of the successful freezing of ram semen by Emmens’ group changed Parkes’ attitude dramatically (Emmens describes receipt of a ‘vituperative’ letter). If Emmens had wished to return to the UK at that stage, he no doubt would have had great difficulty in obtaining suitable employment! With the semen side in the capable hands of Blackshaw, White, Ian Martin and later Ray Wales, Emmens gradually withdrew to concentrate on other areas of reproduction.

In his years at the NIMR he had done extensive work on bioassay, biometrical analysis and aspects of oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic activity. With the initial assistance of Biggers, then Peter Claringbold and Len Martin, new assays for oestrogens and anti-oestrogens were developed and existing assays were improved. The work moved on to examine a variety of synthetic compounds, initially those of the stilbene series like stilboestrol, hexoestrol and dimethylstilboestrol. Then with the appointment of a steroid biochemist, Ron Cox, and later two chemists, David Collins and John Hobbs, a plethora of compounds were synthesised. There was particular interest in finding compounds that had anti- fertility activity without oestrogenic or other side effects. It was also hoped that some might have anti-tumour activity. This work was well supported by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations, WHO and drug companies such as Syntex, Mead Johnson and Aspro-Nicholas. Many compounds with interesting biological properties were synthesised and tested but the ultimate compound(s) proved elusive. Support for such work came to an abrupt halt with the thalidomide disaster. In the last few years before retirement, Cliff went back to more basic research with Gidley-Baird on aspects of the oestrus cycle. He became convinced that a 4–5-day cycle was archetypical and was modified minimally in rodents and to a greater extent in other eutherian mammals. Unfortunately he did not manage to convince many others of this.

Emmens and Claringbold developed some new approaches to bioassay, especially those involving quantal responses, and Claringbold moved into writing quite sophisticated computer programmes for biometrical analysis. He eventually headed the CSIRO Division of Computer Research. While obviously encouraging Claringbold in his foray into the use of computers, Emmens himself showed no interest in computing, nor did he take to the new in vitro assays, such as radioimmunassays. Surprisingly, he was rather disparaging of them. One might have expected a second Edition of Principles of Biological Assay that would have dealt with these new developments, but unfortunately it did not eventuate.

The Environment in Sydney

The conditions in the Sydney department were very conducive to high-quality research. The department was well staffed, with the result that teaching was not a great burden. All investigators, including PhD students, had access to a full-time or half- time laboratory technician, and there was a well-equipped and well-staffed workshop that could make essentially any mechanical or electronic items that were needed. Part of the basement was converted to housing for small laboratory mammals that produced an apparently endless supply of animals, on demand. No Animal Ethics Committees at that time! There were also adequate facilities for housing species such as cattle and sheep. Emmens himself had surprisingly little interest in equipment but was very happy to support requests for equipment from staff or postgraduate students, either within the institution or without. Ian Martin reports that when he provided a binocular microscope for Emmens’ use, it was rejected because Emmens wanted to look with one eye down the microscope and see what he was writing with the other. The suggestion that he just needed a class microscope was not well received!

The success of the research environment can be gauged by the awarding of 35 PhDs within the Department and three higher Doctorates over twenty years. For more than half that time, there were only three permanent academic staff and they numbered only five just before Emmens’ retirement. In many universities, such a small department would not be considered viable these days.

Any problems that arose in the Department, whatever the cause, were solved quickly at morning or afternoon tea or lunch. No interminable departmental meetings in those days! Emmens was always in a hurry, no doubt exacerbated by a developing hyperthyroidism, but things did get done without prevarication. There was also plenty of opportunity for lively discussions over wide-ranging topics at lunch, particularly in the early days when the crowded building also hosted the CSIRO Division of Animal Genetics and had frequent visits from the Prospect staff. Sometimes Cliff’s ‘incandescent temper’ would cause him to depart such discussions very hastily when he disagreed, but he never was one to bear a grudge.

No doubt one of the reasons for Emmens’ success was that he did not suffer fools gladly, be they Vice-Chancellors, Purchasing Officers, his own staff, or students. It was widely known that he had a black belt in judo, and that possibly contributed to a quick settling of disputes — putting the knowledge into practice helped him on one occasion to settle an altercation between some veterinary students.

Service

Emmens served the scientific community and also government and semi-government bodies widely. These are detailed fully below but included serving on the Council of the Australian Academy of Science, as President/Chairman of national scientific societies and international congresses, as a member of the Standing Committee of the International Congress of Animal Reproduction, the National Planned Parenthood Association and the Therapeutic Goods Standards Committee, of WHO Committees and of the CSIRO Advisory Committee. He was also an active member of a wide range of scientific societies, also detailed below.

Emmens the Aquarist

Any record of Cliff Emmens’ life would be incomplete without a consideration of his interest in freshwater and marine life. The interest was stimulated by investigations of pond life when he moved to the ‘country’ at age 10 and it developed as he grew to involve keeping freshwater species and attempts to keep marine species after vacation trips to the coast. His interest as an aquarist exploded, however, when he moved to Sydney in 1948 and purchased a large home on the foreshore of Sydney Harbour. The basement of this home eventually contained over seventy tanks, ranging in volume from 20 to 450 litres, and was a magnificent spectacle. His interest in tropical species grew despite the difficulties in acquiring them, keeping them alive and obtaining the necessary equipment for their survival and display. He soon began to write extensively on the subject. This writing included books, initially with his friend H.R. Axelrod in the USA, and also wide-ranging articles that were published in aquarist magazines. In total he wrote more than twenty books on the subject, including ten after his retirement. On reflection, this was probably Cliff’s greatest interest after his family, and some idea of his enthusiasm can be gained from the title of an article he wrote: ‘Oh to be an aquarist in the year 536 Ê 106 BC’! He was Patron of the British Marine Aquarists Association and the Marine Aquarium Research Institute of Australia.

Scientific Societies

Institute of Biology (UK)
Royal Statistical Society (UK)
Physiological Society (UK)
Society for the Study of Fertility (UK)
Society for Endocrinology (Foundation Treasurer) UK)
International Biometric Society (regional President)
Endocrine Society of Australia (twice President)
Australian Physiological Society
Society for Animal Production
ANZAAS (Sectional President)
Australian Society for Reproductive Biology (Chairman)
Australian Academy of Science
Sydney Association of University Teachers (President)
Family Planning Association of Australian (Council member)
International Endocrine Society.

Committees etc.

President:

2nd Asia and Oceania Congress of Endocrinology

Chairman:

Biological Science Committee of the Australian Federation of the Planned Parenthood Association

Statistics Sub-committee and Committee of the Therapeutics Goods Standards Committee, Biological Sciences Sub- committee of the ARGC

Board of Standards of Aust. J. Sci. Res. and Aust. J. Biol. Sci.

Member:

Biological Science Committee of International Planned Parenthood Federation

various WHO Committees

Standing Committee for the International Congress of Animal Reproduction and AI

CSIRO Advisory Committee and State Committee

Weichardt Committee (CSIRO)

Therapeutic Goods Standards Committee

Congenital Abnormalities Sub-committee of ADEC.

University:

Chair of PhD Award Committee

Pro-Dean and Acting Dean, Faculty of Veterinary Science

numerous University and Faculty committees

Summing up

Cliff Emmens came to Sydney with a well- deserved reputation as a scientist, biometrician and author. He quickly demonstrated also an amazing administrative ability in setting up a teaching and research facility that was envied in the rest of the Veterinary Faculty and also in the University of Sydney at large. Some said he was like a benevolent dictator, but it was a philosophy that worked, and was allowed to work, at that time. He fostered independent thought and effort in staff and students alike — it was swim or sink and most followed the former path. He also had diverse outside interests; in particular he had a beloved interest in tropical marine fishes and invertebrates. He was a devoted family man and was wretched at the early death of his son, Roger Lyle, in 1993. We are proud to have been part of the life of Cliff Emmens.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Jane Scott (née Emmens) for access to some of her father’s personal writings, Alan Blackshaw, Ian White, Ron Penn, Ian Martin, and Dorothy Lascelles, early members of the Department of Veterinary Physiology, for their personal memories; and Frank Norman, Librarian at the National Institute for Medical Research at Mill Hill in London, for a wealth of correspondence relating to Emmens’ time at the NIMR, both before and after the war.

Bibliography

1936

1. Emmens, C.W. Sections of drosophila salivary glands. J. Heredity, 27, 351.

1937

2. Emmens, C.W. The morphology of the nucleus in the salivary glands of four species of drosophila. Z. f. Zellf. u. micro. Anat., 26, 1–21.

3. Emmens, C.W. Salivary gland cytology of roughest3 inversion and reinversion, and roughest2. J. Genetics, 34, 191–202.

4. Callow, R.K., Callow, N.H. and Emmens, C.W. Colorimetric determination of substances containing the Grouping –CH2.CO– in urine extracts as an indication of androgen content (Proc. Biochem. Soc.). Chem. & Ind., 56, 1056.

5. Callow, R.K., Callow, N.H. and Emmens, C.W. Androgen excretion in human urine in normal and certain abnormal conditions. Ibid., 1056.

1938

6. Emmens, C.W. Response of fowl to massive dosage of oestrone and testosterone (Proc. Phys. Soc. 1). J. Physiol., 92, 1–2.

7. Emmens, C.W. Maximum growth rate of capon comb. Ibid., 93, 413–415.

8. Emmens, C.W Some effects of compounds of the androsterone–testosterone series on ovariectomised mice. J. Physiol., 93, 416–422.

9. Emmens, C.W. and Parkes, A.S. The oestrogens of the testis and of the adrenal in relation to the treatment of enlarged prostate with testosterone propionate. J. Path. Bact., 47, 279–283.

10. Callow, N.H., Callow R.K. and Emmens, C.W. Colorimetric determination of substances containing the grouping –CH2.CO– in urine extracts as an indication of androgen content. Biochem. J., 32, 1312–1331.

11. Emmens, C.W. The oral activity of certain androgens, oestrogens and augmenting substances (Proc. Phys. Soc. 2). J. Physiol., 94, 1–2.

12. Emmens, C.W. The effect of prolonged dosage with oestrogens on the adult brown leghorn cock, J. Physiol., 95, 379–392.

13. Callow, N.H., Callow, R.K. and Emmens, C.W. Preliminary observations on the metabolism of androgenic substances. Chem & Ind., 58, 147–148.

14. Emmens, C.W Time-to-time variation in the response of ovariectomised mice to oestrone. Nature, 143, 476–477.

15. Emmens, C.W. and Parkes, A.S. Multiple activities of anhydro-oxy-progesterone. Ibid., 143, 1064–1065.

16. Emmens, C.W. MRC Special Report No. 234 — Variables affecting the estimation of androgenic and oestrogenic activity. H.M. Stat. Off. Lond., pp. 1–71.

17. Callow, N.H., Callow, R.K. and Emmens, C.W. The effect of the administration of testosterone propionate on the urinary excretion of compounds allied to the steroid hormones. J. Endocr., 1, 99–107.

18. Callow, N.H., Callow, R.K., Emmens, C.W. and Stroud, S.W. Methods of extracting compounds related to the steroid hormones from human urine. Ibid., 1, 76–98.

19. Emmens, C.W. The duration of action of certain natural and synthetic oestrogens when administered orally or by injection. Ibid., 1, 142–146.

20. Emmens, C.W. and Parkes, A.S. The effect of route of administration on the multiple activities of testosterone and methyltestosterone in different species. Ibid., 1, 323–331.

21. Emmens, C.W. and Parkes, A.S. Some biological properties of anhydro-hydroxy- progesterone (Ethinyl testosterone). Ibid., 1, 332–338.

22. Emmens, C.W. The response of inbred mice to oestrone. Ibid., 1, 373–377.

23. Emmens, C.W. and Bradshaw, T.E.T. Mutual antagonism between oestrogens and androgens. Ibid., 1, 378–386.

24. Emmens, C.W. Growth of the reproductive and endocrine organs of the female rabbit. JIbid., 1, 409–416.
1940

25. Emmens, C.W. Analysis of the assays carried out in various laboratories on the contributions offered towards the International standard preparation of the gonadotrophic substance of urine of pregnancy. Bull. Health Org. L. of Nations. 8 Extract No. 15. 862–883.

26. Emmens, C.W. Analysis of the assays carried out in various laboratories on the separate contributions offered towards the International standard preparation for the gonadotrophic substance of pregnant mare’s serum. Ibid. Extract No. 17. 887–897.

27. Emmens, C.W. Analysis of the assays carried out in various laboratories on the separate contributions offered towards the International standard preparation of the lactogenic (crop-gland stimulating) substance of the anterior pituitary gland. Ibid. Extract No. 19. 901–908.

28. Emmens, C.W. and Parkes, A.S. The endocrine system and plumage types. 11 The effects of thyroxin injection to normal, caponized and thyroidectomized caponized birds. J. Genetics, 39, 485–495.

29. Emmens, C.W. and Parkes, A.S. The endocrine system and plumage types. IV, Feminization of plumage, with special reference to Henny Cocks and Eclipse Drakes. Ibid., 39, 503–515.

30. Emmens, C.W. and Ludford, R.J. Action of oestrogens on the female genital tract. Nature, 145, 746.

31. Emmens, C.W. The production of ovulation in the rabbit by the intravenous injection of salts of copper and cadmium. J. Endocr., 2, 63–69.

32. Callow, N.H., Callow, R.K. and Emmens, C.W. 17-Ketosteroid, androgen and oestrogen excretion in the urine in cases of gonadal or adrenal deficiency. Ibid., 2, 88–98.

33. Emmens, C.W. The dose/response relationship for certain principles of the pituitary gland, and of the serum and urine of pregnancy. Ibid., 2, 194–225.

1941

34. Emmens, C.W. Rate of absorption of androgens and oestrogens in free and esterified form from subcutaneously implanted tablets. Endocrinology, 28, 633–642.

35. Emmens, C.W. The inunction of sex hormones on the skin. J. Endocr., 2, 368–379.

36. Emmens, C.W. Precursors of oestrogens. J. Endocr., 2, 444–458.

1942

37. Emmens, C.W. The endocrine system and hair growth in the rat. Ibid., 3, 64–78.

38. Emmens, C.W. and Marks, H.P. The effect of sodium and calcium on the toxicity of potassium in mice. J. Physiol., 101, 131–135.

39. Emmens, C.W. Oestrogens and pro- oestrogens related to stilbene and triphenylethylene. J. Endocr., 3, 168–173.

40. Emmens, C.W. The differentiation of oestrogens from pro-oestrogens by the use of spayed mice possessing two separate vaginal sacs. Ibid., 3, 174–177.

1943

41. Emmens, C.W., MacIntosh, F.C. and Richter, D. Oestrogens and acetylcholine. J. Physiol., 101, 460–464.

42. Emmens, C.W. The urinary excretion of oestrogens following the injection of pro- oestrogens in the guinea pig. J. Endocr., 3, 316–321.

1944

43. Parkes, A.S. and Emmens, C.W. The effects of androgens and oestrogens on birds. A Review. Vitamins and Hormones, 11, 361–408.
1947

44. Swyer, G.I.M. and Emmens, C.W. A modified method for the viscosimetric assay of hyaluronidase. Biochem. J., 41, 29–34.

45. Emmens, C.W. Halogen-substituted oestrogens related to triphenylethylene. J. Endocr., 5 ,170–173.

46. Emmens, C.W. The motility and viability of rabbit spermatozoa at different hydrogen ion concentrations. J. Physiol., 106, 471–481.

47. Emmens, C.W. and Swyer, G.I.M. Maintenance of spermatozoal motility in dilute suspension. Nature, 160, 718.

48. Smith, A.U., Emmens, C.W. and Parkes, A.S. A closed-vessel technique for the assay of thyroid activity (Proc. Soc. Endo.). J. Endocr., 5, xxxi.

49. Smith, A.U., Emmens, C.W. and Parkes, A.S. A simple mammalian test for thyroidal activity. Ibid. xxxii.

50. Smith, A.U., Emmens, C.W. and Parkes, A.S. Assay of thyroidal activity by closed vessel technique. Ibid., 5, 186–206.

51. Smith, A.U., Emmens, C.W. and Parkes, A.S. Effect of various oestrogens on the male mammal. A Review. Vitamins and Hormones, 5, 233–272.

52. Emmens, C.W. The motility and viability of spermatozoa under various experimental conditions. Conf. on Infertility, Family Planning Association, Swindon Press: pp. 3–10.

53. Smith, A.U., Emmens, C.W. and Swyer, G.I.M. Observations on the motility of spermatozoa in relation to their density in suspension. Ibid., pp. 11–18.

54. Emmens, C.W. The biological assay of urinary oestrogens and androgens (Proc. Soc. Endo.). J. Endocr.5, lxxv–lxxix.
1948

55. Emmens, C.W. The effect of variations in osmotic pressure and electrolyte concentration on the motility of rabbit spermatozoa in dilute suspension. J. Physiol., 107, 129–140.

56. Emmens, C.W. and Swyer, G.I.M. Observations on the motility of rabbit spermatozoa in dilute suspension. J. Gen. Physiol., 32, 121–138.

57. Bruce, H.M. and Emmens, C.W. The feeding and breeding of laboratory animals. J. Hygiene, 46, 315–323.

1949

58. Emmens, C.W. Principles of Biological Assay. Chapman and Hall, London.

1950

59. Emmens, C.W. Hormones of importance in reproduction. Aust. Vet. J., 25, 185–189.

60. Emmens, C.W. The intravaginal assay of natural occurring oestrogens. J. Endocr., 6, 302–307.

61. Emmens, C.W. and Blackshaw, The low temperature storage of ram, bull and rabbit spermatozoa. Aust. Vet. J., 26, 226–228.

62. Emmens, C.W. Recovery from oestrogen- induced sterility in albino mice. J. Endocr., 7, 31–41.

63. Emmens, C.W. Statistical Methods In Hormone Assay Ed. C.W. Emmens. Academic Press, New York: pp. 1–32.

64. Emmens, C.W. Estrogens Ibid., pp. 391–417.

65. Emmens, C.W. Hormones of the Corpus Luteum Ibid., pp. 419–441.

1951

66. Blackshaw, A.W. and Emmens, C.W. The interaction of pH, osmotic pressure and electrolyte concentration on the motility of ram, bull and rabbit spermatozoa. J. Physiol., 114, 16–26.

67. Emmens, C.W. Standardization. In Hormones: A Survey of Their Properties and Uses. Pharmaceutical Press, London: pp. 111–137.

68 Emmens, C.W. The Department of Veterinary Physiology, University of Sydney. Aust. J. Sci., 13, 161–163.

1952

69. Emmens, C.W. The preparation and testing of the provisional British Standard for globin zinc insulin. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 4, 382–391.

1953

70. Emmens, C.W. Sheep Biology Laboratory, Prospect, N.S.W Nature, 171, 597.

71. Emmens, C.W. Practical application of the use of oestrogens. The Stock Inspector. pp. 67–73.

72. Emmens, C.W. Further studies on the sterilization of female albino mice with oestrogen. J. Endocr., 9, 204–209.

73. Emmens, C.W. and Blackshaw, A.W. The fertility of ram and bull semen after deep freezing. Proc. XIX Inter. Physiol. Congr.: p. 334.

74. Claringbold, P.J., Biggers, J.D, and Emmens C.W. The angular transformation in quantal analysis. Biometrics, 9, 467–484.

75. Emmens, C.W. Keeping and Breeding Aquarium Fishes. TFH Publications, Neptune City, NJ, USA.

76. Blackshaw, A.W. and Emmens, C.W. Survival of deep frozen mammalian spermatozoa. Vet. Rec., 65, 872.

1953

77. White, I.G., Blackshaw, A.W. and Emmens, C.W. Metabolic and motility studies relating to the low temperature storage of ram and bull spermatozoa. Aust. Vet. J., 30, 85–94.

78. Biggers, J.D., Claringbold, P.J. and Emmens, C.W. A study of the variation in response of ovariectomized mice to the intravaginal and subcutaneous administration of oestrogens. J. Endocr., 11, 26–35.

79. Blackshaw, A.W. and Emmens, C.W. Frozen spermatozoa. Vet. Rec., 66, 304.

80. Emmens, C.W. Recent advances in endocrinology. Bull. Post. Grad. Cttee. in Medicine, University of Sydney, 10, 217–223.

81. Emmens, C.W. Biological assay of the gonadal and gonadotrophic hormones. Brit. Med. Bull., 11, 135–140.

82. Emmens, C.W. and Blackshaw, A.W. The fertility of frozen ram and bull semen. Aust. Vet. J., 31, 76–79.

83. Emmens, C.W. and Blackshaw, A.W. Artificial Insemination. Physiol. Rev., 36, 277–306.

84. Emmens, C.W. and Martin, I.C.A. The controlled introduction of deep-freeze techniques into artificial insemination. Proc. III International Cong. Animal Reprod., Cambridge. Artificial Insemination: pp. 18–20.

1957

85. Blackshaw, A.W., Emmens, C.W., Martin, I.C.A. and Heyting, J. The preparation of deep-frozen semen. A.I. Digest, 5, 6–8.

86. Emmens, C.W. and Martin, I.C.A. Recent work with deep-frozen semen. A.N.Z.A.A.S. Conference, January.

87. Emmens, C.W. and Martin, I.C.A. The fertility of bull semen deep-frozen by two different techniques. Aust. Vet. J., 33, 63–67.

88. Emmens, C.W., Claringbold, P.J. and Lamond, D.R. Action of gonadotrophins on the ovary. Nature, 180, 38.

89. Emmens, C.W. Some properties of methylethylstilboestrol. J. Endocr., 16, 148–155.

1958

90. Emmens, C.W. Statistics in the Department of Veterinary Physiology, University of Sydney. Bull. Stat. Soc. N.S.W., 18, 1–5.

91. Emmens, C.W. and Cox, R.I. Dimethylstilboestrol as an oestrogen inhibitor. J. Endocr., 17, 265–271.

92. Martin, I.C.A. and Emmens, C.W. Factors affecting the fertility and other characteristics of deep-frozen bull semen. Ibid., 17, 449–455.

1959

93. Lamond, D.R. and Emmens, C.W. The effect of hypophysectomy on the mouse uterine response to gonadotrophins. Ibid., 18, 251–261.

94. Emmens, C.W. Role of gonadal hormones in reproductive processes. In Reproduction in Domestic Animals, eds H.H. Cole and P.T. Cupps. Academic Press, New York: pp. 111–154.

95. Emmens, C.W. Fertility in the male. In Supplement to Vol. 3 of Progress in the Physiology of Farm Animals, ed J. Hammond. Butterworths, London. pp: 1047–1115.

96. Emmens, C.W., Cox, R.I. and Martin, L. Oestrogen inhibitors of the stilboestrol series. J. Endocr., 18, 372–380.

97. Emmens, C.W. The hormonal component of reproduction. Postgraduate Med. Bull.

98. Emmens, C.W., Cox, R.I. and Martin, L. Anti-oestrogens. First Asia and Oceania Regional Cong. Endocrinology. Kyoto.

99. Emmens, C.W. The estimation of various gonadotrophins using the mouse uterine weight method. Ibid.

100. Emmens, C.W. Testing for anti-oestrogenic activity. Sixth Internat. Conf. Planned Parenthood. New Delhi: p. 325.

101. Emmens, C.W. Biological aspects of fertility control. Ibid: pp. 155–157.

1960

102. Emmens, C.W. Insemination pH and the sex ratio of rabbits. J. Heredity., 51, 156–157.

103. Emmens, C.W. The role of statistics in biological research. Biometrics, 16, 161–175.

104. Martin, L., Emmens, C.W. and Cox, R.I. The effects of oestrogens and anti-oestrogens on early pregnancy in mice. J. Endocr., 20, 299–306.

105. Emmens, C.W., Cox, R.I. and Martin, L. Oestrogen inhibition by steroids and other substances. Ibid., 20, 198–209.

106. Martin, L. and Emmens, C.W. The mitotic and metabolic assay for oestrogens. Proc. First Cong. Endocr. Copenhagen: pp. 543–544.

107. Emmens, C.W., Cox, R.I. and Martin, L. Anti-oestrogens. Ibid. pp. 545–549.

1961

108. Martin, L. and Emmens, C.W. The extraction and estimation of human urinary gonadotrophins. In Human Pituitary Gonadotrophins, ed. A. Albert. Charles C. Thomas, Philadelphia: pp. 42–68.

109. Lamond, D.R., Claringbold, P.J. and Emmens, C.W. The biological assay of gonadotrophins. In Human Pituitary Gonadotrophins, ed. A. Albert. Charles C. Thomas, Philadelphia: pp. 69–75.

110. Lamond, D.R. and Emmens, C.W. Nature of urinary gonadotrophins. Ibid., pp. 121–125.

111. Donnelly, R.B., Martin, L., Stone, G.M., Claringbold, P.J. and Emmens, C.W. A factorial comparison of three HMG preparations with different operators and strains of mice. Ibid., 149–156.

112. Claringbold, P.J. and Emmens, C.W. Quantal Responses. In Quantitative Methods in Pharmacology, ed. H. de Jonge. North Holland Pub. Co., pp. 72–87.

113. Emmens, C.W., Cox, R.I. and Martin, L. Modification of the cellular responses to oestrogens by antagonists. Mem. Soc. Endocr., 11, 134–143.

114. Martin, L., Cox, R.I., and Emmens, C.W. The rate of uptake of locally applied oestrone by the vaginal epithelium of the mouse. J. Endocr., 22, 129–132.

115. Martin, I.C.A. and Emmens, C.W. Effects of time of equilibration and addition of fructose on the survival and fertility of bull spermatozoa deep frozen to –79oC. J. Reprod. Fert., 2, 404–410.

116. Finn, C.A. and Emmens, C.W. The effect of dimethylstilboestrol and oestradiol on deciduoma formation in the rat. J. Reprod. Fert., 2, 528–529.

1962

117. Emmens, C.W. and Robinson, T.J. The sheep. In Artificial Insemination in Animals. Comm. Bureau of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Edinburgh.

118. Emmens, C.W. Statistical Methods. In Methods in Hormone Research, Vol. II, ed. R.I. Dorfman. Academic Press, New York: pp. 3–55.

119. Emmens, C.W. Oestrogens. In Methods in Hormone Research, Vol. II, ed. R.I. Dorfman. Academic Press, New York: pp. 59–111.

120. Emmens, C.W. and Finn, C.A. Local and parenteral action of oestrogens on early pregnancy in the mouse. J. Reprod. Fert., 3, 239–245.

121. Emmens, C.W. Action of oestrogens and anti- oestrogens on early pregnancy in the rabbit. Ibid., 3, 246–249.

122. Emmens, C.W. Dilution, transport and storage of ram semen. In Artif. Breed. of Sheep in Aust. Proc. of Conference, August, pp. 118–126.

123. Emmens, C.W. and Martin, I.C.A. The effects of equilibration period and sugar content of the diluent on the survival and fertility of bull spermatozoa deep-frozen to –79°C. Proc. IVth Int. Cong. Animal Reprod. The Hague: pp. 964–968.

124. Axelrod, H.R., Emmens, C.W., Sculthorpe, D., Vordenwinkler, W., Socolof, R. and Pronek, N. Exotic Tropical Fishes. TFH Publications, Neptune City.

125. Emmens, C.W., Cox, R.I. and Martin, L. Antioestrogens. Rec. Prog. Hormone Res., 18, 415–466.

1963

126. Martin, L. Cox, R.I. and Emmens, C.W. Further studies on the effects of oestrogens and anti-oestrogens on early pregnancy in mice. J. Reprod. Fert., 5, 239–247.

127. Emmens, C.W. Endocrine factors in implantation in rodents. Ibid., 5, 292.

128. Emmens, C.W. and Martin, L. Intravaginal assay of oestrogens in mice. Steroids, 2, 221–223.

1964

129. Emmens, C.W., Cox, R.I. and Martin, L. The oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic activity of compounds related to stilboestrol. Acta Endocr., Suppl. 90, 61–69.

130. Emmens, C.W. Endocrine factors in implantation. Exerpta Medica Int. Cong. Series. 72, 553–557.

131. Stone, G.M. and Emmens, C.W. The action of oestrogens and anti-oestrogens in deciduoma formation in the rat. J. Endocr., 24, 147–157.

132. Emmens, C.W. and Martin, L. Estrogens. In Methods in Hormone Research., Vol. III, ed. R.I. Dorfman. Academic Press, New York: pp. 1–80.

133. Emmens, C.W. and Martin, L. Anti-estrogens. In Methods in Hormone Research, Vol. III, ed. R.I. Dorfman. Academic Press, New York: pp. 81–125.

134. Stone, G.M. and Emmens, C.W. The action of oestradiol and dimethylstilboestrol on early pregnancy and deciduoma formation in the mouse. J. Endocr., 29, 137–145.

135. Emmens, C.W. The oestrogenic and antifertility activities of diethylstilboestrol and dimethylstilboestrol. Acta Endocr., 49, 83–89.

136. Emmens, C.W. and Martin, L. The biological activities if U–11100A. J. Reprod. Fert., 9, 269–275.

137. Emmens, C.W. The oestrogenic, anti-oestrogenic activity and anti-fertility activities of various compounds. Ibid., 9, 277–283.

138. Martin, I.C.A. and Emmens, C.W. Artificial insemination of livestock in Australia. Zootechnia e Veterinaria, 10, 169–180.

139. Emmens, C.W. Report on Symposium on Methods for Controlling the Viability and Fertility of Spermatozoa. Proc. Vth Int. Cong. Anim. Reprod. And Artificial Insemination. Trento. Vol. VII, pp. 282–283

140. Emmens, C.W. Statistical methods. In Methods in Hormone Research. Vol. II, 2nd edit. Ed. R.I. Dorfman. Academic Press, New York: pp. 3–57.

141. Emmens, C.W. Estrogens. Ibid., pp. 61–117.

142. Emmens, C.W. Oestrogenic, anti-oestrogenic and anti-fertility activity. Acta Medica Philipina, 1, 220.

1966

143. Emmens, C.W. Estrogen antagonists and fertility control. Conf. on Physiol. Human Reprod., Ford Foundation: pp. 28–29.

144. Emmens, C.W., Miller, B.G. and Owen, W.H. The contrasting action of two steroidal anti- oestrogens. Proc. 2nd Internat. Cong. Hormonal Steroids, Milan: p. 169.

145. Humphrey, K. and Emmens, C.W. The site of action of some anti-oestrogens in preventing implantation in the mouse. Ibid. p. 203.

1967

146. Emmens, C.W., Humphrey, K., Martin, L. and Owen, W.H. Anti-fertility properties of two non oestrogenic steroids and MRL 37. Steroids, 9, 235–243.

147. Emmens, C.W. The Action of Oestrogens. In Advances in Reproductive Physiology, Vol. II, Ed. A. McClaren. Logos Press, London: pp. 213–255.

148. Emmens, C.W. Recent progress in fertility control in animals. Proc. Third Asian and Oceania Cong. Endocr. Manila: pp. 43–50.

149. Miller, B.G. and Emmens, C.W. The incorporation of tritiated uridine in the genital tract of the oestrogen treated mouse. J. Endocr., 39, 473–484.

150. Emmens, C.W. The antifertility properties of stilbene and bibenzyl derivatives. 8th Internat. I.P.P.F. Conf. Santiago: pp. 420–422.

1968

151. Emmens, C.W., Miller, B.G. and Owen, W.H. Biological activities of U–11555A. J. Reprod. Fert., 15, 33–37.

152. Miller, B.G., Owen, W.H. and Emmens, C.W. The incorporation of tritiated uridine in the uterus and vagina of the mouse during early pregnancy. J. Endocr., 41, 189–195.

153. Emmens, C.W., Collins, D.J., Hobbs, J.J. Miller, B.G. and Owen, W.H. Anti-oestrogenic and anti-fertility properties of 4,4’- dihydroxybibenzyls. J. Reprod. Fert., 16, 1–6.

154. Miller, B.G., Owen, W.H. and Emmens, C.W. Uridine incorporation in the rat genital tract during early pregnancy. J. Endocr., 42, 351–352.

1969

155. Emmens, C.W., Collins, D.J., Hobbs, J.J., Miller, B.G. and Owen, W.H. Anti-estrogenic and anti-fertility properties of some basic ether derivatives of dimethylstilbestrol and related compounds. J. Phar. Exp. Therap., 165, 52–59.

156. Emmens, C.W. Physiology of Gonadal Hormones and Related Synthetic Compounds. In Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 2nd edit. Eds H.H. Cole and P.T. Cupps. Academic Press, New York: pp. 85–111.

157. Emmens, C.W. and Miller, B.G. Estrogens, proestrogens and anti-estrogens. Steroids, 13, 725–730.

158. Miller, B.G. and Emmens, C.W. The effects of oestradiol and progesterone on the incorporation of tritiated uridine into the genital tract of the mouse. J. Endocr., 43, 427–436.

159. Miller, B.G. and Emmens, C.W. The oestrogenic potency in the mouse of several substances closely related to diethylstilboestrol and meso-hexoestrol. Ibid., 45, 9–15.

160. Emmens, C.W. Statistical Methods. In Methods in Hormone Research, Vol. 2A, ed. R.I. Dorfman. Academic Press, New York: pp. 4–58.

161. Emmens, C.W. Oestrogens. Ibid., pp. 62–120.

162. Axelrod, H.R. and Emmens, C.W. Exotic Marine Fishes. TFH Publications, Neptune City.

163. Humphrey, K.W. and Emmens, C.W. Effects of a hexoestrol derivative, erythro-MEA on early pregnancy in the mouse. J. Reprod. Fert., 20, 247–253.

1970

164. Emmens, C.W. Postcoital contraception. Brit. Med. Bull., 26, 45–51.

165. Emmens, C.W. Obtaining maximal information from bioassays. In Statistics in Endocrinology, eds J.W. McArthur and T, Colton. MIT Press, Cambridge: pp. 193–214

166. Emmens, C.W. Antifertility agents. In Annual Review of Pharmacology, ed. H.W. Elliott. Annual Reviews Inc., Palo Alto: pp. 237–254.

167. Axelrod. H.R. and Emmens, C.W. Exotic Marine Fishes. TFH Publications, Neptune City.

168. Emmens, C.W. Prolonged anti-oestrogenic and antifertility actions of some triarylalkenes (Proc. Aust. Soc. Reprod. Biol.). J. Reprod. Fert., 24, 143.

1971

169. Emmens, C.W. Guppy Handbook. TFH Publications, Neptune City.

170. Emmens, C.W. Compounds exhibiting prolonged antioestrogenic activity and antifertility in mice and rats. J. Reprod. Fert., 26, 175–182.

171. Collins, D.J., Hobbs, J.J. and Emmens, C.W. Antiestrogenic and antifertility compounds. 4, 1,1,2-triarylalkan-1-ols and 1,1,2-triarylalk-1-enes containing basic ether groups. J. Med. Chem., 14, 952–957.

1972

172. Owen, W.H., Miller, B.G. and Emmens, C.W. The incorporation of tritiated uridine in the genital tract of the mouse during the oestrous cycle. J. Endocr., 54, 173–174.

173. Emmens, C.W. Non-steroidal agents. Fifth Int. Cong. Pharm.: pp. 23–24.

174. Emmens, C.W. Biologici metodi di analisi. In Enciclopedia della Chimica, pp. 446–450.

1973

175. Emmens, C.W. Non-steroidal agents. In Pharmacology and the Future of man. (Proc. 5th Int. Cong. Pharm. Vol. 1) Karger, Basel: pp. 177–194.

176. Emmens, C.W. Antifertility activities in the mouse and rat of triarylalkenes and triarylalkanolds with basic ether groups. J. Reprod. Fert., 34, 23–28.

177. Emmens, C.W. and Carr. W.L. Further studies of compounds exhibiting prolonged antioestrogenic and antifertility activity in the mouse. Ibid., 34, 29–40.

178. Emmens, C.W. Inhibitors of implantation. Ibid., Suppl. 18, 177–184.

179. Emmens, C.W. Measurement of hormones. In Peptide Hormones, eds. S.A. Berson and R.S. Yalow, North Holland Publishing Co.: pp. 61–83.

1974

180. Kwun, J.K. and Emmens, C.W. Hormonal requirements for implantation and pregnancy in the ovariectomized rabbit. Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 27, 275–283.

181. Kwun, J.K. and Emmens, C.W. Implantation and pregnancy in the ovariectomized rabbit. J. Reprod. Fert., 36, 465–466.

1975

182. Kennedy, T.G. and Emmens, C.W. Effects of estrogen and progesterone on uterine sialic acid in ovariectomised rats. Steroids, 25, 285–295

183. Kwun, J.K. and Emmens, C.W. Further observations on hormonal support of pregnancy in the ovariectomized rabbit. Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 28, 291–299.

184. Emmens, C.W. The Marine Aquarium in Theory and Practice. TFH Publications, Neptune City.

1976

185. Gidley-Baird, A.A. and Emmens, C.W. The function of anterior pituitary hormones in the initiation of implantation in mice. J. Reprod. Fert., 46, 534–545.

186. Emmens, C.W. The use of agents other than natural hormones. In Implantation of the ovum, eds K. Yoshinaga, R.K. Meyer and R.O. Greep. Cambridge, Mass.: pp. 19–25.

187. Emmens, C.W. Reproduction in the Female. In Veterinary Physiology, ed. J.W. Phillips. W.B. Saunders: Philadelphia: pp. 721–760.

1977

188. Emmens, C.W. and Gidley-Baird, A.A. Evolution of the oestrous cycle. Proc. IV Int. Symp. on Comparative Biology and Evolution, Canberra: pp. 235–243.

189. Merkelbach, P.J. and Emmens, C.W. Plasma progesterone in pregnant ovariectomised rabbits maintained with exogenous progesterone. Steroids, 30, 827–832.

1978

190. Gidley-Baird, A.A. and Emmens, C.W. Pituitary hormone control of implantation in the mouse. Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 31, 657–666.

1980

191. White, B.M., Gidley-Baird, A.A. and Emmens, C.W. Effects of adrenalectomy on reproduction in the mouse. J. Endocr., 86, 155–164.

192. Emmens, C.W. Exotic Tropical Fishes. TFH Publications, Neptune City.

1985

193. Emmens, C.W. The Marine Aquarium in Theory and Practice. 2nd edit. TFH Publications, Neptune City.

1987

194. Emmens, C.W. Tropical Fish – An Introduction. TFH Publications, Neptune City.

195. Axelrod, H.R., Burgess, H.H. and Emmens, C.W. Dr Axelrod’s Mini-Atlas of Freshwater Aquarium Fishes. TFH Publications, Neptune City.

1988

196. Emmens, C.W. Tropical Fish – A Step-by-Step Book. TFH Publications, Neptune City.

197. Emmens, C.W. Miniature Reef Aquarium in Your Home. TFH Publications, Neptune City.

198. Emmens, C.W. Marine Fishes and Invertebrates in Your Home. TFH Publications, Neptune City.

1990

199. Emmens, C.W. Tropical Marine Aquarium Fishes. TFH Publications, Neptune City.

200. Emmens, C.W. Marine Aquaria and Miniature Reefs. TFH Publications, Neptune City.

1994

201. Emmens, C.W. The Modern Reef Aquarium. TFH Publications, Neptune City.

G.M. Stone, Honorary Associate Professor, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney.

R.G. Wales, Professor Emeritus, School of Veterinary Studies, Murdoch University.