BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS

Alfred Edward Ringwood 1930-1993

This memoir was originally published in Historical Records of Australian Science, Vol.12, No.2, 1998.

Ted Ringwood was born in Kew, an inner Melbourne suburb, on 19 April 1930, an only child in a family which identified strongly with Australia and with Melbourne in particular. Both his parents were Australian, but his mother's parents had come to Australia as Presbyterian emigrants from Ulster. His paternal grandfather was born in New Zealand, his paternal great-grandfather in Australia, and his grandmother in India. His father, also Alfred Edward Ringwood, enlisted as an 18-year-old in the First World War and fought in France, suffering gas attack, trench feet and other distressing experiences which heavily affected his later life. During the 1920s he held a variety of unskilled jobs and was essentially unemployed from the beginning of the Depression onwards. Ted's mother and extended family on both sides provided stability when his father joined Australia's large itinerant 'odd-jobbing' labour force during the 1930s. (Later, his father received a war service pension.) Ted's mother, with clerical skills, supported the family through much of the Depression. However, the family's precarious financial position meant that Ted was boarded out with grandparents and relatives for extended periods. His maternal grandfather owned a small foundry in Fitzroy, and successfully managed a small business through the Depression and Second World War years.

Ted attributed his earliest interest in science to his paternal grandfather who was largely self-educated and who attended a working-man's college as an adult, becoming interested in chemistry and in radio. Ted recalled his grandfather's ten-volume set of inorganic chemistry texts, as being instrumental in introducing the theoretical and systematic aspects of science as well as its practical applications.

The extended family support and the inner suburban environment provided Ted with a childhood that he remembered as being 'very pleasant'. He excelled academically at Hawthorn West State School and took up both cricket and football (Australian Rules). His mother's ambition was for Ted to acquire a university education and so she encouraged him to compete for a secondary school scholarship to Geelong Grammar School. He was successful and from age 13 (1943), became a boarder there. Geelong Grammar School is perhaps the most prestigious of Australia's private schools and was then patronized largely by the families of well-established grazing and agricultural properties of the fertile and productive Western District of Victoria, and by wealthy families of southern Australia generally.

Ted was forthright in his praise of the education he received at Hawthorn West. He attained exceptionally high standards in mathematics and English and accordingly was able to jump a year, to Form 4 (i.e. Year 10), in transferring to Geelong Grammar. There, he faced increased academic competition but found excellent teaching and encouragement. He also continued to play Australian Rules football with great enthusiasm.

There was no formal teaching in geology at Geelong Grammar but Ted had such a light academic load in his final year (having achieved the university entrance requirements a year earlier) that he had an opportunity to explore outside the core curriculum. He mastered the geology course of Melbourne High School by acquiring the text books and working through them himself. His growing interest in exploitation of mineral resources for national benefit, and as a potential road to personal wealth, led him to take Geology in his first year at the University of Melbourne. Ted had been awarded a Trinity College Resident Scholarship and this, together with the Commonwealth Government Scholarship provided for tertiary education at that time, enabled him to attend the University of Melbourne without the need for financial support from his family. He continued to play Australian Rules football and represented the University of Melbourne in both the Victorian Amateur Football Association and the annual Inter-varsity contests, to the long-term detriment of his knee joints. College life, football, the traditional undergraduate pursuits, and a broadening interest in metallurgy and materials science as practical, rewarding activities meant that he 'took university work very lightly', doing only enough to pass examinations, but working reasonably hard at geology so as to keep his Trinity scholarship. He obtained First Class Honours in Geology, and afterwards paid tribute to Professor E. Sherbon Hills, an excellent lecturer, and head of a top-class teaching and research department. Hills was an establishment figure in Australian earth sciences of the 1940s and 1950s, a foundation Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science and an unforgiving opponent of the concept of continental drift, then being articulated by Professor S. Warren Carey of the University of Tasmania.

At this stage of his career, however, Ted acknowledged that his motives were to become a successful economic geologist in the expanding minerals exploration industry. At Melbourne University at that time, Honours were awarded on the three-year course, and the top students continued on to a two-year MSc degree involving a major research project. Ted obtained scholarship support and began his MSc degree with a field-mapping and petrology project in the Devonian Snowy River volcanics of northeastern Victoria. This is steep, heavily timbered terrain with limited access and no resident population, so mapping was physically demanding and logistically difficult. Whilst mapping, Ted explored an exhausted silver mine where large quantities of galena-rich tailings had been discarded. Ted seized the opportunity by bagging the galena and transporting it to Melbourne for sale as feedstock for the Melbourne shot tower. (The shot tower is still preserved within the Daimaru Shopping Centre.) The venture was profitable and Ted's lifestyle improved considerably - a lesson that was not wasted on him! He obtained his MSc with Honours in 1953.

At Geelong Grammar, Ted had explored the literary resources in the school library. The books of Ion Idriess held special appeal. They presented an image of Australia as vast, varied, rich in resources, responsive to grand visionary ideas and peopled by independent and self-reliant men (few women!) in harsh but beautiful landscapes. His upbringing in inner Melbourne, through Geelong Grammar and its links to the Australian rural 'establishment', his mother's self-reliance, his wider family's emphasis on independence, and his forced intimacy with the solitude of the Australian bush during his fieldwork studies, meant that Ted absorbed and strongly identified with what he saw and valued as being Australian. He developed strong nationalist sentiments that were to continue throughout his life. His personal commitment to the development of science and industry within Australia likewise had its origins in his upbringing and education and was a dominant factor in his career decisions.

Ted Ringwood began his PhD at the University of Melbourne in 1953 at a time when it was unusual to undertake a PhD degree in Australia. (Most prospective postgraduate students travelled to the UK or the USA for the purpose.) The project began as an experimental study about the origin of metalliferous ore deposits. During his undergraduate and MSc years, Ted had met Arthur Gaskin, a young lecturer in geochemistry and later a scientist and executive of CSIRO's Division of Metallurgy and Minerals Processing. Gaskin and Ted became lifelong friends, and during the construction of the experimental equipment for Ted's proposed PhD study, Gaskin encouraged Ted to read more fundamental geochemistry, particularly that to be found in the works of V.M. Goldschmidt. Ted found this so stimulating that he changed his research topic so as to apply geochemistry to understanding the structure of the Earth. He was particularly interested in the way that crystal chemical concepts might predict the mineralogical constitution of the Earth's mantle. His publications of 1955 and 1956 illustrate the convergent strands which combined to set his future career path. They also attest to his writing skills - an essential basis for a research career - which owed much to the rigour of his primary and secondary education. The publications of that period include two papers on the geology of the Mt Deddick and Snowy River areas of East Gippsland; a patent (with A. Gaskin) on production of rutile from ilmenite; two papers in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta in 1955 on the principles governing trace element distribution during magmatic crystallization; papers in the American Journal of Science and Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta on magnesium silicate and germanate solid solutions and melting relationships; and a paper in Nature on the olivine to spinel transformation in the Earth's mantle. In his 26th year, he was awarded his PhD and had already published major papers in leading international journals. He had pioneered a method for investigating the Earth's interior by using thermodynamics based on crystal chemical concepts and on experimental studies of germanates as analogues of high pressure silicates. He had developed his research quite independently of international leaders in studies of geochemistry or of the Earth's mantle. Professor E.S. Hills wrote on his behalf to Professor Francis Birch at Harvard University, enquiring about postdoctoral research possibilities. Birch responded favourably and offered an appointment. During the fifteen months in 1957 and 1958 which Ted spent at Harvard, he was introduced to high pressure experimental techniques, using the Bridgman anvils (or 'simple squeezer') and found Birch to be kindly, supportive and encouraging. In 1957, Dr Mervyn Paterson from the newly established Department of Geophysics at the Australian National University (ANU) visited Birch's laboratory, met Ted, and encouraged his interest in the ANU. Ted then met Professor John Jaeger, Professor of Geophysics at ANU, at the 1957 IUGG meeting in Toronto - it was indicative of the lack of contact between universities in Australia at that time that the two had not previously met, nor had Jaeger, a supporter of S. Warren Carey, had any effective scientific communication with E.S. Hills! Jaeger inquired about Ted from Birch and, after receiving Birch's enthusiastic endorsement, offered Ted a position in the new Department of Geophysics in the Research School of Physical Sciences at ANU.

At the ANU, Jaeger had added palaeomagnetism, heat flow, seismology, rock mechanics and experimental deformation to the Department of Geophysics, and had grafted isotope geochemistry and geochronology on to an 'inherited' laboratory in radiochemistry. Ted's expertise lay firmly in geochemistry but his research objectives were also those of many geophysicists - to understand the nature and properties of the Earth's interior, particularly the then unknown Transition Zone. Ted accordingly constructed a Bridgman-anvil high-pressure apparatus in his new laboratory in Canberra. In parallel, he continued his interest in the chemical composition and evolution of the solar system with special emphasis on the nature and significance of different classes of meteorites. Here he began by documenting the mineralogy of representatives of the different chondritic meteorite types, thereby emphasising both chemical-equilibrium trends, on the one hand, and the multi-component nature of meteorites, on the other. He showed that several meteorite classes had formed by auto-reduction processes from parental type I carbonaceous chondrites, and concluded that the various suites of differentiated meteorites had formed by melting and differentiation of parental chondritic bodies. These insights are summarized in several important papers in the late '50s and early '60s, wherein he both formulated the 'chondritic earth model', and discussed the composition and origin of the solar system. He challenged H.C. Urey's concept, generally accepted at the time, that differing densities of terrestrial planets reflected mechanical fractionation of metal from silicate during condensation of the solar nebula. Ted's interpretation was vindicated when it was later found that the solar abundance of iron - on which Urey had relied - was incorrect. Ted also emphasised the importance of different oxidation states in accounting for differing densities between Venus, Earth and Mars. This work laid the foundation for his active participation in studies of the lunar samples returned by the Apollo Mission in the early 1970s.

The work on meteorites also took Ted on several visits to Sweden in 1958-60 where he worked in collaboration with Kurt Fredericksson. There he met and, on 26 August 1960, married Gun Carlson. Ted and Gun returned to Canberra in 1960 to set up the Ringwood home which welcomed many visitors, particularly through the 1960s and 1970s.

It was characteristic of Ted Ringwood's style that he would focus intensively on a major theme, assimilate new relevant information from the literature, commonly contribute new results, and then proceed to construct an updated or greatly revised synthesis or model. He would return to these major themes if significant new data appeared, if a contradiction presented itself, and in invited review papers. Thus the intertwining themes of geochemical evolution of the solar system, composition and mineralogy of the Earth's mantle, composition of the Earth's core, composition and origin of Earth's Moon and the relationships between mineralogical phase transitions and mantle dynamics, continued as major research interests throughout his career.

In his early work, Ted had used germanate minerals as low-pressure analogues for high pressure polymorphs of silicate phases. These experimental insights allowed him to predict that polymorphic phase transitions in the common mantle minerals, olivine and pyroxene, would occur within the pressure regime of the Earth's Transition Zone. Indeed, this was Birch's 1952 hypothesis. (Phase transformations may occur in response to pressure, when a crystal structure is reorganised into a new, denser and more compact arrangement.) Phase transformations offered an alternative to postulating major chemical compositional layering in the Earth as a way of explaining the seismic velocity and density discontinuities across the Transition Zone. At ANU, Ted began experimental study of silicates at high pressure and in 1959 demonstrated that the iron end-member Fe2SiO4 of olivine indeed transformed to the denser spinel structure, as did numerous germanate and germanate-silicate solid solutions. In 1966 Ted and Alan Major, the technical officer who worked with him from 1964 to 1993, synthesised the spinel form of (Mg0.8Fe0.2)SiO4. This was especially significant because this composition approximates that of the Earth's mantle. Also in 1966, the transformation of pure forsterite (Mg2SiO4) to spinel-like b-phase was achieved. Thus the nature of the 400 km seismic discontinuity (at the top of the Transition Zone) was established beyond reasonable doubt. Further important polymorphic transitions - of pyroxene to garnet structure, of calcium silicate to perovskite, and of magnesium silicate (pyroxene) to perovskite structure were demonstrated by Ted and his colleague Dr Lin-gun (John) Liu at ANU in the 1970s. Several different kinds of high pressure apparatus were employed for this purpose, including Bridgman anvils with extremely small internal strip-heaters and the diamond-anvil high pressure cell in which the sample is internally heated by an infra-red laser. It was characteristic of Ted that this persistent experimental approach to the determination of the mineralogy and chemical composition of the mantle was complemented by progressive refinement of conceptual models of mantle dynamics and, particularly, of the fate of cool, sinking lithospheric slabs. Throughout the 1980s, in a series of rewarding collaborations with several Japanese postdoctoral fellows, Ted debated the issue of whole-mantle versus layered-mantle convection and argued in several major publications that descending slabs would be deflected within the Transition Zone. High-resolution seismic tomography later confirmed that view. Moreover, he presented a substantive case that no major compositional differences exist between upper and lower mantle and that the peridotitic composition inferred for the upper mantle was also appropriate for the lower mantle.

In 1962, Jaeger recruited me to work with Ted, specifically on commissioning the internally heated piston-cylinder apparatus. This device can reproduce pressure-temperature conditions equivalent to depths of about 150 km inside the earth. Thus began a fruitful fourteen-year collaboration at ANU. We began by quantifying Ted's 'pyrolite' model, expressed in opposition to a then popular alternative that the Earth's upper mantle was of basaltic, not peridotitic composition. In the alternative model, the seismic velocity and density jump across the Mohorovicic Discontinuity was attributed to phase transformations in basaltic, not peridotitic, composition. Ted, working from his chondritic model for the Earth's bulk composition, argued instead for an olivine-rich (peridotitic) mantle composition. Moreover, my own PhD study on a natural peridotite had established that it was indeed a mantle sample of high pressure origin. Together, we explored this concept further, calculating a model mantle composition termed 'pyrolite' that is equivalent to fertile upper mantle peridotite with the capacity to yield basalt by partial melting. We defined the four major mineral associations expected at depth for pyrolite and used the new piston cylinder apparatus for confirmation. In parallel we also explored the high pressure mineralogy of basaltic compositions to test the alternative model. We compared our experiments directly with observations on natural high pressure metamorphic rocks. We found, for example, that basalt converted to an assemblage well-represented in some metamorphic terranes, that is intermediate between its high-pressure mineralogy (eclogite) and its low-pressure mineralogy (gabbro). In this way we began investigations which led to key papers on the basalt-to-eclogite transformation and the role of this transformation in mantle dynamics. Complementary papers emphasised petrological aspects, and tectonic and geophysical implications. However, we did not always reach a consensus. One publication in 1966 presents two alternative scenarios of the role of eclogite in initiating or driving tectonic processes, couched in both 'fixist' or 'continental drift' terms, thereby illustrating the Hills/Carey dichotomy in our backgrounds and illustrative of the debates at that time. This collaborative period was extremely active and rewarding. It gave me first-hand insight into Ted's fundamental modus operandi - using experiments to obtain robust data on which multiple hypotheses might be built, but which would survive only until further observations or experimental study rendered them untenable. Ted Ringwood was not afraid to be wrong in his hypotheses or models but preferred that he should lead the rejection of an earlier idea and acceptance of a new one - rather than others should do so. His friend, Professor Albrecht Hofmann, Director of the Max Planck Institut für Chemie in Mainz, in delivering the Goldschmidt Medal citation to Ted in 1991, recounts how Ted was quick to recognise the importance of a particular concept and to pursue it tenaciously, 'sometimes in error, but never off course'.

During my tenure at ANU in the 1960s, we investigated the complementary relationship between partial melt (basalt) and its residue (peridotite) as functions of pressure and temperature. These experiments would not have been possible without the electron microprobe. We were the first to employ that instrument - new at the time - to analyse tiny minerals in situ in experimental charges. We also chose to employ natural volcanic rock compositions, rather than simple synthetic analogues, and both of these strategies proved extremely rewarding. The experimental petrology and petrogenesis of natural basaltic rock compositions became a major focus for research through the 1960s and early 1970s, including Ted's collaboration with my brother, Professor Trevor H. Green (then a PhD student), and Professor Ian A. Nicholls (a postdoctoral fellow).

Ted's reservoir of experience and knowledge meant that he was well-placed to exploit the scientific opportunities presented by the Apollo missions. The lunar rocks returned to Earth yielded a wealth of new geological, geophysical and chronological insights into the origin and evolution of another body in the solar system. In 1960, Ted had revived a modified version of Darwin's fission hypothesis. In essence, the material that accreted to form the Moon was thought to have been derived ultimately from the Earth's mantle. This was a minority view, and the first heat-flow measurements dealt it a severe blow. Given the thickness of the lunar crust, the heat-flow data implied that the Moon contained about twice as much uranium as does the Earth. That in turn meant that the Moon would have to contain about twice the Earth's inventory of calcium and aluminium oxides - seemingly the death-knell of the fission hypothesis with its requirement for similarity in bulk compositions. The fission hypothesis was unpopular for other reasons too, such as difficulty with the angular-momentum dynamics of the Earth-Moon system. It was much to Ted's relief that more accurate measurements on later missions permitted downward revision of heat-flow, and consequent resurrection of the fission hypothesis. Moreover, by this stage Ted had generated a wealth of experimental data on the origins and petrogenesis of the basalts that, long ago, had flooded the lunar maria. These results, in combination with certain seleno-chemical considerations, likewise pointed to a common genetic inheritance for both Earth and its Moon. Ted's hypothesis then received endorsement from Heinrich Wänke, a leading European geoscientist. Moreover, the giant-impact hypothesis of Hartmann and Davis, and Cameron and Ward, offered a conceptually-appealing mechanism for ejecting material from the Earth. Ted, however, was lukewarm about that scenario because it would require catastrophic melting of the Earth. He instead advocated ejection of proto-lunar material by numerous lesser impacts, after the Earth's core had segregated. Vigorous and heated debate ensued, and the issue is still not satisfactorily resolved. A comprehensive and fascinating narrative encompassing these turbulent times can be found in Brush (1988).

The seismic properties of the Earth's outer core of molten iron imply that it contains about 10 wt% of light elements. In 1977 Ted proposed that oxygen formed a major part of that light-element inventory. His rationale was straightforward. Oxygen makes up about half of the silicate earth, and thermodynamic considerations indicate that its solubility in molten iron should be facilitated by both high pressures and high temperatures. Intermittently, over the next decade, Ted and his colleagues conducted a series of ingenious experiments that provided a qualitative demonstration of that hypothesis. The experimental challenges were substantial. For example, Ted's equipment could reach pressures that were only about one-tenth those of the outer core. Indeed, it was not until 1992 that Ted's friend, Dr Reini Boehler, using materials supplied by Ted, was able to provide a more definitive demonstration via the ultra-high-pressure diamond anvil cell.

Public debate about the export of uranium was especially intense and divisive in Australia in the mid-1970s. There was much concern over the disposal of high level wastes (HLW) arising from burning Australian uranium in foreign nuclear power reactors. (Australia, with massive fossil-fuel reserves, does not herself generate power by nuclear means.) HLW are the unavoidable by-product of reprocessing spent fuel for the recovery and recycling of uranium and plutonium. HLW present a radiological hazard that requires management for time-scales of hundreds of thousands of years.

The late Sir Edward Bullard FRS, Professor of Geophysics at Cambridge University, further stimulated Ted's interest in the subject during a visit to Australia in 1977. At that time, most nations with nuclear-power programmes planned to consolidate and solidify HLW as an integral constituent of glass monoliths. Ted realised that this strategy might be less than ideal if glass wasteforms were ultimately to be buried deep underground. From a geosciences perspective, glass is not especially resistant to corrosion by circulating groundwaters. In contrast, certain ceramics might display advantageous properties. Ted accordingly drew on his reservoir of geochemical and mineralogical knowledge, and over the next eighteen months converged on and patented SYNROC (SYNthetic ROCk). SYNROC is a titania-based ceramic, the constituent minerals of which have the capacity to immobilize, in their crystal lattices, almost all of the radionuclides in HLW. Moreover, SYNROC's minerals also occur in nature, and so its longevity in diverse geological environments could be guaranteed. Ted called a press conference to announce his concept. To his surprise, he found himself under attack from all quarters. The 'greens', on the one hand, did not appreciate having their case for the intractability of nuclear waste management weakened by the advent of SYNROC. And the nuclear establishment did not welcome the criticism implicit in the announcement of 'an improved wasteform'.

In the context of its decision to permit the export of uranium, the Australian government also continued to support research into particular aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. The government supported the construction and commissioning of a full-scale, non-radioactive demonstration SYNROC plant at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation's (ANSTO) site in Sydney. ANSTO scaled up the fabrication process and also, over subsequent years, has carried out extensive scientific characterization and testing of SYNROC, both in Australia and via international collaborative agreements. The research, in which Ted continued to take an active interest, continues against a shift in waste management policy. Most nations have, for the time being, adopted the 'once-through' cycle, in which spent fuel is regarded as a waste product ultimately destined for encapsulation and geological internment. Reprocessing has been largely abandoned because it does not appear to be justified on economic grounds and thus the high level wastes for which SYNROC was designed are not a major aspect of the industry's future scenario.

Another venture into applied science stemmed from Ted's appointment to a scientific advisory board for one of Australia's major mining houses in the 1980s. Ted was amazed by the abundance of small industrial-grade diamonds flowing from the newly-opened Argyle mine in Western Australia. With corporate support he invented and patented a new diamond-based cutting tool material suitable for hard-rock drilling and ultra-hard ceramic machining. Licensing and commercialization of this technology is now underway.

Ted's published work was prolific and included two books, The Composition and Petrology of the Earth's Mantle (1975) and The Origin of the Earth and Moon (1979). He published over 300 scientific papers on several themes, including mineral transformations at high pressures, dynamic processes within the Earth's mantle (30 km to 2900 km depth); the origin of basaltic rocks; the nature of the Earth's core; the chemical evolution of the planets and meteorites; and the composition and origin of the Moon. A bibliography can be found at the conclusion of this memoir.

The Department of Geophysics and Geochemistry had grown and diversified under Professor J.C. Jaeger and within the Research School of Physical Sciences but by the early 1970s the approaching retirement of Jaeger, the limits to growth as a department within the Research School and conflicts between the earth scientists and the Director of RSPhysSci (the nuclear physicist Professor E.W. Titterton) led to pressures to separate the Department of Geophysics and Geochemistry into a new Research School. Ted Ringwood led this campaign, developing arguments on the importance of the earth sciences generally to Australia, the standing of the ANU group in international terms, and particularly on the inability, without significant growth, to expand into new fields of geophysics and geochemistry. The debates became intense and culminated in Ringwood and Titterton appearing before the University Council to argue their respective cases. The University Council, disposed towards conservatism and support of one of its most senior Research School Directors, was nevertheless persuaded by Ringwood in a meticulously prepared argument avoiding the personality issues which had become quite bitter. The new Research School of Earth Sciences (RSES) was established in 1972 with Professor Anton L. Hales appointed as Director.

Ted Ringwood was Director of RSES from 1978 to 1983. He had great influence on the research directions of the Department of Geophysics and Geochemistry and then on the Research School of Earth Sciences. He was a strong supporter of the introduction of geophysical fluid dynamics in 1975 and of the addition of environmental geochemistry. Initially opposed to the proposal by Professor W. Compston to design and build a high-resolution ion microprobe within RSES (largely because of cost), Ted became a major supporter during his term as Director. Similarly, he gave strong support to the development of mineral physics, to seismology and to geodynamics as core activities in RSES, in addition to maintaining a vigorous research group built around excellent research and technical staff and a series of contract appointments as research fellows and postdoctoral fellows.

Ted was a leading figure in Australian science. He contributed to broader scientific and social issues through his role as a senior ANU academic, membership of the Australian Academy of Science, and via national advisory committees. His work has been widely honoured, with many medals and prizes for achievement or 'Distinguished Lectures', and by election to Fellowships of numerous scientific societies (see below). Amongst his most prized awards were the Bowie Medal of the American Geophysical Union in 1974 (he was the youngest scientist to have received the medal) and the Goldschmidt Medal of the Geochemical Society. Perhaps most significantly, in 1991, he was presented with the Feltrinelli International Prize by the National Academy of Italy in the Corsini Palace in Rome. This prize is awarded in a five-year cycle to the fields of Science, Medicine, Art, Literature and Humanities. Previous recipients have included J.B.S. Haldane, Igor Stravinsky, Henry Moore and Thomas Mann. Ted was the first earth scientist to receive the Prize since 1966, and it is a fitting tribute to his stature. It is appropriate to quote from his address to the President and members of the Italian National Academy, and to members of the Italian Government, on the occasion of the award. 'It would be very rare that an individual scientist could claim the credit for recognition of this kind. The scientific output of an individual reflects not only his own efforts, but also, directly and indirectly, those of his colleagues, students, technicians, his institution and family. I've been extremely fortunate in all of these.... In particular I must pay tribute to the stimulating and supportive scientific environment provided by my own University.... I do not know of any other Institution where the conditions for research would have been so favourable.... Our understanding of the Earth in all her aspects has developed dramatically during the last 25 years. This has been an exhilarating period to have been an Earth Scientist. I feel very fortunate and fulfilled to have been able to participate in some of these developments.'

The one great love of Ted's life was the Earth - its origin, structure, dynamics and constitution. It was his profession, his pastime and his passion. His recreational pursuits in later life included camping in the Australian bush, and the pleasures of a beach-side holiday-house on the unspoiled south coast of New South Wales. He also became an accomplished and well-practised expert on the finer points of Australian wine.

Sadly, Ted died of lymphoma on 12 November 1993 at the age of 63. He is mourned by his wife Gun, his children Kristina and Peter, as well as a wide circle of friends and colleagues both at the Australian National University and amongst the discipline of Earth Sciences worldwide.

Honours and awards

Fellow, Australian Academy of Science, 1966.

Commonwealth and Foreign Member, Geological Society of London, 1967.

Fellow, American Geophysical Union, 1969.

Council, Australian Academy of Science, 1969-72.

Vice-President, Australian Academy of Science, 1971-72.

Fellow, Royal Society of London, 1972.

Fellow, Meteoritical Society, 1972.

Foreign Associate, National Academy of Science, USA, 1975.

Honorary Member, All-Union Mineralogical Society, USSR, 1975.

Honorary Foreign Fellow, European Union of Geosciences, 1983.

Honorary Member, Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1983.

Honorary Doctorate (Dr. ver. nat. h.c.) University of Göttingen, 1987.

Mineralogical Society of America Award, 1967.

Clarke Memorial Lecture, Royal Society of New South Wales, 1969.

Britannica Australia Award for Science, 1969.

Inaugural Rosentiel Award, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1971.

Werner Medaille, German Mineralogical Society, 1972.

William Smith Lecture, Geological Society of London, 1973.

Arthur L. Day Medal, Geological Society of America, 1974.

Bowie Medal, American Geophysical Union, 1974.

Mueller Medal, Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science, 1975.

Vernadsky Lecture, USSR Academy of Science, 1975.

Centenary Lecturer and Medallist, Chemical Society of London, 1977.

Matthew Flinders Lecture and Medal, Australian Academy of Science, 1978.

Foster Hewitt Lecturer, Lehigh University, 1978.

Pawsey Memorial Lecture, Australian Insitute of Physics, 1980.

Sir Maurice Mawby Memorial Lecture, Mineralogical Society of Victoria, 1981.

Hallimond Lecture, Mineralogical Society of Great Britain, 1983.

Bakerian Lecture, Royal Society of London, 1983.

Gold Medal for Research, Royal Society of Victoria, 1985.

Arthur Holmes Medal, European Union of Geosciences, 1985.

Inaugural Ingerson Lecture, International Association of Cosmochemistry and Geochemistry, 1988.

Wollaston Medal, Geological Society of London, 1988.

Alix G. Mautner Memorial Lectures, University of California at Los Angeles, 1990.

Feltrinelli International Prize, National Academy of Italy, 1991.

Goldschmidt Award, Geochemical Society, 1991.

Clarke Medal, Royal Society of New South Wales, 1992.

Harry H. Hess Medal of the American Geophysical Union, 1993.

J.C. Jaeger Medal of the Australian Academy of Science, 1993.

Acknowledgments

Grateful thanks to my colleagues at the Research School of Earth Sciences, Professors W. (Bill) Compston, Anton Hales, Kurt Lambeck and Mervyn Paterson and Dr Sue Kesson, for looking at earlier versions of this manuscript and making helpful suggestions.

The photograph was taken around 1988 by Bob Cooper of the Australian National University Photo Services. It is reproduced with the ANU's kind permission.

References to Other Authors

Brush, S.G. A history of modern selenogony: Theoretical origins of the Moon, from capture to crush. Space Science Reviews 47 211-273, 1988.

Bibliography

A. Phase transformations under high pressure and their bearing upon the constitution of the deep mantle

Ringwood, A.E. The system Mg2SiO4-Mg2GeO 4. Am. J. Sci. 254, 707-711, 1956.

Ringwood, A.E. The olivine-spinel transition in the earth's mantle. Nature 178, 1303-1304, 1956.

Ringwood, A.E. The olivine-spinel transition in fayalite. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 69, 129, 1958.

Ringwood, A.E. Constitution of the mantle Part I. Thermodynamics of the olivine-spinel transition. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 13, 303-321, 1958.

Ringwood, A.E. Constitution of the mantle Part II. Further data on the olivine-spinel transition. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 15, 18-29, 1958.

Ringwood, A.E. Constitution of the mantle Part III. Consequences of the olivine-spinel transition. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 15, 195-212, 1958.

Ringwood, A.E. Constitution of the mantle - A revision. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 16, 192-193, 1959.

Ringwood, A.E. The olivine-spinel inversion in fayalite. Am. Mineral. 44, 659-661, 1959.

Ringwood, A.E. The olivine-spinel transition in nickel orthosilicate. Nature 187, 1019, 1960.

Ringwood, A.E. Solid solutions in the systems Mg2GeO4-Ni2GeO 4 and Mg2GeO4Co2GeO 4. Aust. J. Sci. 23, 1961.

Ringwood, A.E. Prediction and confirmation of olivine-spinel transition in Ni2SiO4. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 26, 457-469, 1962.

Ringwood, A.E. and Seabrook, M.P. The system Mg2SiO4-Ni2GeO 4at 600 C°and 0-90 kilobars. Nature 193, 158-159, 1962.

Ringwood, A.E. and Seabrook M.P. Olivine-spinel equilibria at high pressure in the system Ni2GeO4Mg2SiO 4. J. Geophys. Res. 67, 1975-1985, 1962.

Tarte, P. and Ringwood, A.E. Infra-red spectra of the spinels Ni2SiO4 Ni2GeO4 and their solid solutions. Nature 193, 971-972, 1962.

Ringwood, A.E. and Seabrook, M.P. High-pressure transition of MgGeO3 from pyroxene to corundum structure. J. Geophys. Res. 67, 1690-1691, 1962.

Ringwood, A.E. Mineralogical constitution of the deep mantle. J. Geophys. Res. 67, 4005-4010, 1962.

Ringwood, A.E. and Seabrook, M.P. Some high-pressure transformations in pyroxenes. Nature 196, 883-884, 1962.

Ringwood, A.E. Phase transformations in the mantle. Proc. NAS-NRS Conf. at Woods Hole, May (1962) 19-24.

Ringwood, A.E. Olivine-spinel transformation in cobalt orthosilicate. Nature 198, 79-80, 1963.

Ringwood, A.E. and Seabrook, M.P. High-pressure phase transformations in germanate pyroxenes and related compounds. J. Geophys. Res. 68, 4601-4609, 1963.

Ringwood, A.E. Phase transitions in the earth. International Dictionary of Geophysics, 1-4, Pergamon Press, 1964.

Tarte, P. and Ringwood, A.E. Infra-red spectrum and germanium coordination in some high-pressure meta-germanates. Nature 201, 819, 1964.

Clark, S.P. and Ringwood, A.E. Density distribution and constitution of the mantle. Rev. Geophys.2, 35-88, 1964.

Ringwood, A.E. Mineralogy of the Mantle. In Advances in Earth Science, editor P. Hurley, M.I.T. Press, Boston, 357-398, 1966.

Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. High pressure transformation of FeSiO3 pyroxene to spinel plus stishovite. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 1, 135-136, 1966.

Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. Some high-pressure transformations in olivines and pyroxenes. J. Geophys. Res. 71, 4448-4449, 1966.

Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. High pressure transformations in pyroxenes. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 1, 351-357, 1966.

Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. Synthesis of Mg2SiO4-Fe2SiO 4 spinel solid solutions. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 1, 241-245, 1966.

Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. High pressure transformation in CoSiO3 pyroxene and some geochemical implications. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 1, 209-210, 1966.

Reid, A.F., Wadsley, A.D. and Ringwood, A.E. High pressure NaAlGeO4 with calcium ferrite isotype and model structure for silicates at depth in the Earth's mantle. Acta Crystal. 23, 736-739, 1967.

Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. Some high pressure transformations of geophysical significance. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 2, 106-110, 1967.

Clark, S.P. and Ringwood, A.E. Density, strength and constitution of the mantle. In The Earth's Mantle, editor T. Gaskell, Academic Press, London, 111-124, 1967.

Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. High pressure reconnaissance investigation in the system Mg2SiO4MgO-H2O, Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 2, 130-133, 1967.

Ringwood, A.E. New light on the earth's interior. New Scientist 33, 530-532, 1967.

Ringwood, A.E., Reid, A.F. and Wadsley, A.D. High pressure transformation of alkali aluminosilicates and aluminogermanates. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 3, 38-40, 1967,

Ringwood, A.E. The pyroxene-garnet transformation in the earth's mantle. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 2, 255-263, 1967.

Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. The garnet-ilmenite transformation in Ge-Si pyrope solid solutions. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 2, 331-334, 1967.

Ringwood, A.E., Reid, A.F. and Wadsley, A.D. High-pressure KAlSi3O8, an aluminosilicate with sixfold coordination. Acta Crystal 23, 1093-1095, 1967.

Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. High pressure transformations in zinc germanates and silicates. Nature 215, 1367-1368, 1967.

Reid, A.F. and Ringwood, A.E. High Pressure NaAlO 2, an a-NaFeO2 isotype. Inorg. Chem.7, 443-445, 1968.

Wadsley, A.D., Reid, A.F. and Ringwood, A.E. The high pressure form of Mn2GeO4, a member of the olivine group. Acta Crystal. 24, 740-744, 1968.

Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. Apparatus for phase transformation studies at high pressures and temperatures. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors1, 164-168, 1968.

Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. High pressure transformations in pyroxenes, II. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 5, 76-78, 1968.

Ringwood, A.E. and Reid, A.F. High pressure polymorphs of olivines: The K2NiF4 type. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 5, 67-70, 1968.

Reid, A.F. and Ringwood, A.E. High pressure scandium oxide and its place in the molar volume relationships of dense structures of M2X3 and ABX3 type. J. Geophys. Res. 74, 3238-3252, 1969.

Ringwood, A.E. and Green, D.H. Phase transitions. In The Earth's Crust and Upper Mantle, editor P.J. Hart, Am. Geophys. U. Mon. No. 13, 637-649, 1969.

Ringwood, A.E. Germanates as high pressure models for silicates. In Problems of Petrology and Petrogenetic Mineralogy, Volume in honour of V.M. Sobolev, Moscow, 41-48, 1969.

Ringwood, A.E. Phase transformations in the mantle. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 5, 401-412, 1969.

Ahrens, T.H., Anderson, D.L. and Ringwood, A.E. Equations of state and crystal structures of high-pressure phases of shocked silicates and oxides. Rev. Geophys. 7, 667-707, 1969.

Ringwood, A.E. and Reid, A.F. High pressure transformations of spinels, I. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 5, 245-250, 1969.

Reid, A.F. and Ringwood, A.E. Six coordinate silicon: High pressure strontium and barium aluminosilicates with the hollandite structure. Solid State Chem. 1, 6-9, 1969.

Reid, A.F. and Ringwood, A.E. Newly observed high pressure transformations in Mn3O4 CaAl2O4 and ZrSiO4. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 6, 205-208, 1969.

Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. The system Mg2SiO4-Fe2SiO 4 at high pressures and temperatures. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 3, 89-108, 1970.

Ringwood, A.E. Phase transformations and the constitution of the mantle: A review. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 3, 109-155, 1970.

Ringwood, A.E. and Reid, A.F. The crystal chemistry of dense M3O4 polymorphs: High pressure Ca2GeO4 of K2NiF4 structure type. J. Solid State Chem. 1, 557-565, 1970.

Ringwood, A.E. and Lovering, J.F. Significance of pyroxene-ilmenite intergrowths among kimberlite xenoliths. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 7, 371-375, 1970.

Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. Synthesis of majorite and other high pressure garnets and perovskites. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 12, 411-418, 1971.

Ringwood, A.E. and Reid, A.F. Olivine-spinel transformation in MgMnGeO4, FeMnGeO4 and CoMnGeO4. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 31, 2791-2793, 1971.

Ringwood, A.E. Mineralogy of the deep mantle: Current status and future development In The Nature of the Solid Earth, editor E.C. Robertson, McGraw-Hill, 67-92, 1972.

Ringwood, A.E. Phase transformations and mantle dynamics. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 14, 233-241, 1972.

Liebermann, R.C. and Ringwood, A.E. Birch's law and polymorphic phase transformations. J. Geophys. Res. 78, 6926-6931, 1973.

Ringwood, A.E. Phase transformations and their bearing on the dynamics of the mantle. Fortschr. Miner. 50, 113-139, 1973.

Ringwood, A.E. Structure and composition of the earth. Encyclopaedia Britannica (Macropaedia), 6, 48-57, 1974.

Jackson, I.N., Liebermann, R.C. and Ringwood, A.E. Disproportionation of spinels to mixed oxides: Significance of cation configuration and implications for the mantle. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 24, 203-208, 1974.

Reid, A.F. and Ringwood, A.E. New dense phases of geophysical significance. Nature 252, 681-682, 1974.

Liebermann, R.C., Mayson, D., Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. Hot-pressing of polycrystalline aggregates at very high pressure for ultrasonic measurements. Proc. 4th International Conf. on High Pressure (Kyoto) 495-502, 1974.

Liu, L. and Ringwood, A.E. Synthesis of a perovskite-type polymorph of CaSiO3. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 28, 209-211, 1975.

Reid, A.F. and Ringwood, A.E. High pressure modification of ScAlO3 and some geophysical implications. J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3363-3370, 1975.

Ringwood, A.E. Phase transformations in descending plates: implications for mantle dynamics and differentiation. Am. Geophys. U. Mon. (Woollard Volume) 19, 391-398, 1976.

Liebermann, R.C., Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. Elasticity of polycrystalline stishovite. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 32, 127-140, 1976.

Ringwood, A.E. Phase transformations in descending plates and implications for mantle dynamics. Tectonophysics 32, 129-143, 1976.

Jones, L.E.A., Liebermann, R.C. and Ringwood, A.E. Elasticity of aluminate, titanate, stannate and germanate compounds with the perovskite structure. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 14, 165-178, 1977.

Jackson, I., Liebermann, R.C. and Ringwood, A.E. Elasticity and phase equilibria of spinel disproportionation reactions. Geophys. J.R. Astr. Soc. 50, 553-586, 1977.

Liebermann, R.C. and Ringwood, A.E. Some comments on the elasticity of stishovite as determined by ultrasonic and high pressure X-ray diffraction techniques. In High-Pressure Research: Applications to Geophysics, editors M.H. Manghnani and S. Akimoto, Academic Press, New York, 343-349, 1977.

Reid, A.F., Ringwood, A.E. and Li, C. High pressure silicate pyrochlores Sc2Si2O7 and In2Si2O7. J. Solid State Chem. 20, 219-226, 1977.

Sinclair, W. and Ringwood, A.E. Single crystal analysis of the structure of stishovite. Nature 272, 714-715, 1978.

Jackson, I., Liebermann, R.C. and Ringwood, A.E. The elastic properties of (MgxFe1x)O solid solutions. Phys. Chem. Minerals 3, 11-31, 1978.

Eggleton, R.A., Boland, J. and Ringwood, A.E. High pressure synthesis of a new aluminium silicate Al5Si5O17(OH). Geochem. J. 12, 191-194, 1978.

Sinclair, W., Eggleton, R.A. and Ringwood, A.E. Crystal synthesis and structure refinement of high pressure ScAlO3 perovskite. Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 149, 307-314, 1979.

Jackson, I. and Ringwood, A.E. High-pressure polymorphism of the iron oxides. Geophys. J.R. Astr. Soc. 64, 767-783, 1981.

Ringwood, A.E. Phase transformations and differentiation in subducted lithosphere: Implications for mantle dynamics, basalt petrogenesis and crustal evolution. J. Geol.90, 611-643, 1982.

Jackson, I., Ringwood, A.E. and McCammon, C.A. Comment on "High-pressure polymorphism of FeO? An alternative interpretation and its implications for the Earth's core", by L. Liu et al. Geophys. J.R. Astr. Soc., 77, 279-282, 1984.

McCammon, C.A., Jackson, I., Cashion, J.D. and Ringwood, A.E. The binary systems FeS-MgS and FeS-MnS: Mossbauer spectrascopy of the B1 solid solutions and high pressure phase equilibria. Phys. Chem. Minerals, 11, 182-193, 1984.

Ringwood, A.E. Mantle dynamics and basalt petrogenesis. Tectonophysics, 112, 17-34, 1985.

Irifune, T., Sekine, T., Ringwood, A.E. and Hibberson, W.O. The eclogite-garnetite transformation at high pressure and some geophysical implications. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 77, 245-256, 1986.

Sekine, T., Irifune, T., Ringwood, A.E. and Hibberson, W.O. High pressure transformation of eclogite to garnetite in subducted oceanic crust. Nature 319, 584-586, 1986.

Sekine, T. and Ringwood, A.E. A comparison of garnet-ilmenite-perovskite phase equilibria in germanate and silicate systems at high pressures. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 41, 240-248, 1986.

Ringwood, A.E. Dynamics of subducted lithosphere and implications for basalt petrogenesis. Terra Cognita. 6, 67-77, 1986.

Irifune, T. and Ringwood, A.E. Phase transformations in primitive MORB and pyrolite compositions to 25 GPa and some geophysical implications, pp. 231-242 in High-Pressure Research in Geophysics, edited by M. Manghnani and Y. Syono, Terrapub, Tokyo, 1987.

Irifune, T. and Ringwood, A.E. Phase transformations in subducted oceanic crust and buoyancy relationships at depths of 600-800 km in the mantle. Earth Planet, Sci. Lett.,117, 101-110, 1993.

Irifune, T. and Ringwood, A.E. Phase transformations in a harzburgite composition to 26 GPa: implications for dynamical behaviour of the subducting slab. Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 86, 365-376, 1987.

Kato, T., Irifune, T. and Ringwood, A.E. Majorite partition behaviour and petrogenesis of the Earth's upper mantle. Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 546-549, 1987.

Kato, T., Ringwood, A.E. and Irifune, T. Experimental constraints on the early differentiation of the Earth's mantle. Lunar Planet Sci., 18 483-484, 1987.

Ohtani, E., Ringwood, A.E. and Hibberson, W.O. Modified split-sphere guide block for practical operation of a multi-anvil apparatus. High Pressures - High Temperatures 19, 523-529, 1987

Ringwood, A.E. and Irifune, T. Nature of the 650-km seismic discontinuity: implications for mantle dynamics and differentiation. Nature 331, 131-136, 1988.

Kato, T., Ringwood, A.E. and Irifune, T. Experimental determination of element partitioning between silicate perovskites, garnets and liquids: constraints on early differentiation of the mantle. Earth Planet Sci., Lett. 89, 123-145, 1988

Kato, T., Irifune, T. and Ringwood, A.E. Constraints on element partition coefficients between MgSiO3 perovskite and liquid determined by direct measurements. Earth Planet Sci., Lett., 90, 65-68, 1988.

Rigden, S., Jackson, I., Niesler, H. and Ringwood, A.E. Pressure dependence of the elastic wave velocities for Mg2GeO4 spinel to 3 GPa. Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 605-608, 1988.

Irifune, T., Hibberson, W. and Ringwood, A.E. Eclogite-Garnetite transformation at high pressure and its bearing on the occurrence of garnet inclusions in diamond. In: Kimberlites and Related Rocks: Vol. 2 - their mantle/crust setting, diamonds and diamond exploration. Geol. Soc. of Aust. Special Pub. 14, 877-882, Blackwell Sci. Pub., Clayton, Vic., 1989.

Ringwood, A.E. Constitution and evolution of the mantle. Review paper in: Kimberlites and Related Rocks: Vol. 1 - their composition, occurrence, origin and emplacement. Geol. Soc. of Aust., Special Pub. 14, 457-485, Blackwell Sci. Pub., Clayton, Vic., 1989.

Ringwood, A.E. Phase transformations and their bearing on the constitution and dynamics of the mantle, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 55, pp 2083-2110, 1991

Fitz Gerald, J.D. and Ringwood, A.E. High pressure rhombohedral perovskite phase Ca2AlSiO5.5. Phys. Chem. Minerals, 18, 40-46, 1991.

Ringwood, A.E. Role of the transition zone and 660 km discontinuity in mantle dynamics. Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 86, 5-24, 1994.

B. Constitution of the upper mantle, petrogenesis of basaltic, calc-alkaline and kimberlitic magmas

Ringwood, A.E. Melting relations of Ni-Mg olivines and some geochemical implications. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 10, 297-303, 1956.

Ringwood, A.E. Genesis of the basalt-trachyte association. Beitrage zur Mineral. und Petrog. 6, 346-351, 1959.

Ringwood, A.E. A model for the upper mantle. J. Geophys. Res. 67, 857-867, 1962.

Ringwood, A.E. A model for the upper mantle, 2. J. Geophys. Res. 67, 4473-4477, 1962.

Green, D.H. and Ringwood, A.E. Mineral assemblages in a model mantle composition. J. Geophys. Res. 68, 937-945, 1963.

Ringwood, A.E. and Green, D.H. Experimental investigations bearing on the nature of the Mohorovicic Discontinuity. Nature, 201, 566-567, 1964.

Green, D.H. and Ringwood, A.E. Fractionation of basalt magmas at high pressures. Nature, 201, 1276-1279, 1964.

Ringwood, A.E., McGregor, I.D. and Boyd, F.B. Petrological constitution of the upper mantle. Carnegie Inst. Washington Yearbook 63, 147-152, 1964.

MacGregor, I.D. and Ringwood, A.E. The natural system enstatite-pyrope. Carnegie Inst. Washington Yearbook 63, 161-163, 1964.

Green, T., Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. Friction effects and pressure calibration in a piston-cylinder apparatus at high pressure and temperature. J. Geophys. Res. 71, 3589-3594, 1966.

Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. Synthesis of diamonds. Aust. J. Chem. 19, 1955-1969, 1966.

Ringwood, A.E. and Green, D.H.. An experimental investigation of the gabbro-eclogite transformation and some geophysical implications. Tectonophysics 3, 383-427, 1966.

Green, D.H.and Ringwood, A.E. Petrological nature of the stable continental crust. In The Earth Beneath the Continents, editors J.S. Steinhart and T.J. Smith. Am. Geophys. U. Mon. 10, 611-619, 1966.

Green, T.H. and Ringwood, A.E. Origin of the calc-alkaline igneous rock suite. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 1, 307-316, 1966.

Green, D.H. and Ringwood, A.E. An experimental investigation of the gabbro to eclogite transformation and its petrological applications. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 31, 767-833, 1967.

Green, D.H. and Ringwood, A.E. The genesis of basaltic magmas. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 15, 103-190, 1967.

Green, T.H., Green, D.H. and Ringwood, A.E. The origin of the high alumina basalts and their relationships to quartz tholeiites and alkali basalts. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 2, 41-51, 1967.

Green, D.H. and Ringwood, A.E. The stability fields for aluminous pyroxene peridotite and garnet peridotite and their relevance in upper mantle structure. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters, 3, 151-160, 1967.

Green, T.H. and Ringwood, A.E. Genesis of the calc-alkaline igneous suite. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 18, 105-162, 1968.

Green, T.H. and Ringwood, A.E. Origin of garnet phenocrysts in calc-alkaline rocks. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 18, 163-174, 1968.

Green, T.H. and Ringwood, A.E. Crystallization of basalt and andesite under high pressure hydrous conditions. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 3, 481-489, 1968.

Hyndman, R.D., Lambert, F.B., Heier, K.S., Jaeger, J.C. and Ringwood, A.E. Heat flow and surface radioactivity measurements in the Precambrian shield of Western Australian. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 1, 129-135, 1968.

Green, T.H. and Ringwood, A.E. High pressure experimental studies on the origin of andesites. In Proceedings of the Andesite Conference, editor A.R. McBirney. Bull. 65, Oregon Dept. Geol. Min. Resources, 21-32, 1969.

Green, D.H. and Ringwood, A.E. Origin of basalt magmas. In The Earth's Crust and Upper Mantle, editor P.J. Hart. Am. Geophys. U. Mon. 13, 489-494, 1969.

Ringwood, A.E. Composition and evolution of the upper mantle. In The Earth's Crust and Upper Mantle, editor P.J. Hart. Am. Geophys. U. Mon. 13, 1-17, 1969.

Green, D.H. and Ringwood, A.E. Mineralogy of peridotitic compositions under upper mantle conditions. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors. 3, 359-371, 1970.

Green, D.H. and Ringwood, A.E. A comparison of recent experimental data on the gabbro-garnet granulite-eclogite transition. J. Geol. 80, 277-288, 1972.

Green, T.H. and Ringwood, A.E. Crystallization of garnet-bearing rhyodacite under high pressure, hydrous conditions. Proc. Geol. Soc. Aust. 19, 203-212, 1972.

Nicholls, I. and Ringwood, A.E. Production of silica saturated tholeiitic magmas in island arcs. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters, 17, 243-246, 1972.

Ringwood, A.E. Continental drift and the earth's interior. In Proc. 16th International Edison Birthday Celebration, Melbourne, 37-48, 1972.

Ringwood, A.E.Petrological evolution of island arc systems. Q.J. Geol. Soc. London (William Smith Lecture) 130, 183-204, 1974.

Mysen, B., Kushiro, I., Nicholls, I. and Ringwood, A.E. A possible mantle origin for andesitic magmas: Discussion of a paper by Nicholls and Ringwood. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 21, 221-229, 1974.

Nicholls, I. and Ringwood, A.E. Effect of water on olivine stability in tholeiites and the production of silica-saturated magmas in the island-arc environment. J. Geol. 81, 285-300, 1973.

Ringwood, A.E. Petrogenesis in island arc systems. In Island Arcs, Deep Sea Trenches and Back-Arc Basins, editors M. Talwani and W.C. Pitman, Maurice Ewing Series I, Am. Geophys. Union, Washington, D.C., 311-324, 1977.

Ringwood, A.E. Synthesis of pyrope-knorringite solid solution series. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 36, 443-448, 1977.

Leven, J.H., Jackson, I. and Ringwood, A.E. Upper mantle seismic anisotropy and lithospheric decoupling. Nature 289, 234-239, 1981.

Kesson, S.E. and Ringwood, A.E. Slab-mantle interactions I: Sheared and refertilized garnet peridotite xenoliths - samples of Wadati-Benioff zones? Chem. Geol., 78, No. 2, 83-96, 1989.

Kesson, S.E. and Ringwood, A.E. Slab-mantle interactions II: The formation of diamonds. Chem. Geol., 78, No. 2, 97-118, 1989.

Ringwood, A.E. Slab-mantle interactions III: Petrogenesis of the alkaline association and structure of the upper mantle. Chem. Geol., 82, 187-207, 1990.

Ringwood, A.E., Kesson, S.E., Hibberson W.O. and Ware N. Origin of kimberlites and related magmas. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 113 521-538, 1992.

Hofmann, A.W./Ringwood, A.E. Introduction and Acceptance Speech for the V.M. Goldschmidt Medal Award. Geochem.Cosmochim.Acta, 56, 4333-4335, 1992.

Kesson, S.E., Ringwood, A.E. and Hibberson W.O. Kimberlite melting relations revisited. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 121, 261-262, 1994.

C. The Earth's core

Ringwood, A.E. Core-mantle equilibrium: Comments on a paper by R. Brett. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 35, 223-230, 1971.

Oversby, V.M. and Ringwood, A.E. Time of formation of the earth's core. Nature, 234, 463-465, 1971.

Oversby, V.M. and Ringwood, A.E. Potassium distribution between metal and silicate and its bearing on the occurrence of potassium in the earth's core. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 14, 14-18, 1972.

Oversby, V.M. and Ringwood, A.E. Reply to comments by K. Goettel and J. Lewis. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 18, 151-152, 1972.

Ringwood, A.E. Composition of the core and implications for origin of the earth. Geochem. J. 11, 111-135, 1977.

McCammon, C.A., Jackson, I. and Ringwood, A.E. A model for the formation of the Earth's core. Proc. 13th Lunar, Planet. Sci. Conf., J. Geophys. Res. Suppl. 88, 501-506, 1982.

McCammon, C.A., Ringwood, A.E. and Jackson, I. A model for core segregation within the Earth. Lunar Planet. Sci. 13, 479-480, 1982.

McCammon, C.A., Ringwood, A.E. and Jackson, I. Phase diagrams of the system FeFeO at high pressure. Lunar Planet. Sci. 13, 481-482, 1982.

Ringwood, A.E. and Major, A. Mutual solubilities of molten transition metals and oxides. Lunar Planet. Sci. 13, 651-652, 1982.

McCammon, Ringwood, A.E. and Jackson, I. Thermodynamics of the system FeO-MgO at high pressure. Lunar Planet. Sci., 13, 483-484, 1982.

McCammon,C.A., Jackson, I. and Ringwood, A.E. Thermodynamics of the system FeFeO-MgO at high pressure and temperature and a model for the formation of the earth's core. Geophys. J.R. Astron. Soc. 72, 577-595, 1983.

Ohtani, E. and Ringwood, A.E. Composition of the core. I. Solubility of oxygen in molten iron at high temperatures. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters, 71, 85-93, 1984.

Ohtani, E., Ringwood, A.E. and Hibberson, W.O. Composition of the core. II. Effect of high pressure on solubility of FeO in molten iron. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters, 71, 94-103, 1984.

Ringwood, A.E. The Earth's core: Its composition, formation and bearing upon the origin of the Earth. Bakerian Lecture. Proc. Roy. Soc. A395, 1-46, 1984.

Kato, T. and Ringwood, A.E. Melting relationships in the system Fe-FeO at high pressures: implications for the composition and formation of the Earth's core. Phys. Chem. Min. 16, No.6, 524-538, 1989.

Ringwood, A.E. and Hibberson, W. The system Fe-FeO revisited. Phys. Chem. Minerals, 17, 313-319, 1990.

Ringwood, A.E. Solubility of mantle oxides in molten iron at high pressures and temperatures: implications for core-mantle reaction and the nature of the D" layer in the lower mantle. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 102, 235-251, 1991

D. Chemical evolution of Earth, planets and meteorites

Ringwood, A.E. On the chemical evolution and densities of the planets. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 15, 257-287, 1959.

Ringwood, A.E. Some aspects of the thermal evolution of the earth. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 20, 241-259, 1960.

Ringwood, A.E. Silicon in the metal phase of enstatite chondrites. Nature 186, 465-466, 1960.

Ringwood, A.E. Cohenite as a pressure indicator in iron meteorites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 20, 155-158, 1960.

Ringwood, A.E. The Novo Urei Meteorite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 20, 1-4, 1960.

Ringwood, A.E. Changes in solar luminosity and some possible terrestrial consequences. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 21, 295-296, 1961.

Ringwood, A.E. Chemical and genetic relationships among meteorites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 24, 159-197, 1961.

Ringwood, A.E. Silicon in the metal phase of enstatite chondrites and some geochemical implications. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 25, 1-13, 1961.

Kaufman, L. and Ringwood, A.E. High pressure equilibria in the iron-nickel system and the structure of metallic meteorites. Acta Metal. 9, 941-944, 1961.

Ringwood, A.E. Present status of the chondritic earth model. In Researches on Meteorites, editor C.B. Moore. John Wiley & Sons, 198-216, 1962.

Ringwood, A.E. and Seabrook, M.P. Cohenite as a pressure indicator in iron meteorites II. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 26, 507-509, 1962.

Ringwood, A.E. and Kaufman, L. The influence of high pressure on transformation equilibria in iron meteorites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 26, 999-1009, 1962.

Fredriksson, K. and Ringwood, A.E. Origin of meteoritic chondrules. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 27, 639-642, 1963.

Ringwood, A.E. The origin of high temperature minerals in carbonaceous chondrites. J. Geophys. Res. 68, 1141-1143, 1963.

Ringwood, A.E. Cohenite as a pressure indicator in iron meteorites III. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 29, 573-579, 1963.

Ringwood, A.E. Origin of chondrites. Nature 207, 701-704, 1966.

Ringwood, A.E. Chemical evolution of the terrestrial planets. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 30, 41-104, 1966.

Ringwood, A.E. The chemical composition and origin of the earth. In Advances in Earth Science, editor P.M. Hurley. M.I.T. Press, Boston, 287-356, 1966.

Ringwood, A.E. Genesis of chondritic meteorites. Rev. Geophys. 4, 113-175, 1966.

Ringwood, A.E. and Clark, S.P. Internal constitution of Mars. Nature 234, 89-92, 1971.

Ringwood, A.E. The early chemical evolution of planets. In In the Beginning, a symposium on the origin of planets and life. Australian Academy of Science, Chapter 3, 48-84, 1973.

Anderson, D.L. and Ringwood, A.E. Earth and Venus: A comparative study. Icarus 30, 243-253, 1977.

Ringwood, A.E. Composition and origin of the earth, pp. 1-54. In The Earth, its Origin, Structure and Evolution, editor M.W. McElhinny. Academic Press, London 597 p., 1979.

Ringwood, A.E. Water in the solar system. Water, Planets, Plants and People Aust. Acad. Sci. symposium, editor A.K. McIntyre, 18-34, 1977.

Ringwood, A.E. Composition and origin of the earth. Vernadsky Lecture, USSR Acad. Sci., 1978.

Ringwood, A.E. Origin of the earth and moon. Records of the Australian Acad. Sci. (Flinders Lecture) 4, No. 2. 71-107, 1979.

Ringwood, A.E. Origin of the earth and moon. The 16th Pawsey Memorial Lecture, Univ. of West. Australia. The Aust. Physicist 18, 91-102, 1981.

Ringwood, A.E. Significance of the terrestrial Mg/Si ratio. Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 95, 1-7, 1989.

Ringwood, A.E. Earliest history of the Earth-Moon system. Proc. Conf. on 'Origin of the Earth' (Eds. H. Newson and J.Jones, Lunar and Planetary Institute), Oxford University Press, pp 101-134, 1990.

Ringwood, A.E. Thermal and geochemical evolution of the Earth, Lithos special IAVCEI volume.

McDonough, W.F., Sun, S.-S., Ringwood, A.E., Jagoutz, E. and Hofmann, A.W. Potassium, rubidium and cesium in the Earth and Moon and the evolution of the mantle of the Earth. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 56, 1001-1012.

E. Composition, constitution and origin of the Moon

Ringwood, A.E. Origin of the moon: the precipitation hypothesis. Earth, Planet. Sci. Letters 8, 131-140, 1970.

Ringwood, A.E. and Essene, E. Petrogenesis of lunar basalts, and the internal constitution and origin of the moon. Science 167, 607-610, 1970.

Ringwood, A.E. and Essene, E. Petrogenesis of Apollo 11 basalts, internal constitution and origin of the moon. Proc. Apollo 11 Lunar Sci. Conf.1, 769-799, 1970.

Ringwood, A.E. Petrogenesis of Apollo 11 basalts and implications for lunar origin. J. Geophys. Res. 75, 6453-6479, 1970.

Ringwood, A.E. Origin of the moon. Clark Memorial Lecture, Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W. 103, 57-75, 1970.

Essene, E., Ringwood, A.E. and Ware, N.G. Petrology of the lunar rocks from Apollo 11 landing site. Proc. Apollo 11 Lunar Sci. Conf. 1, 385-397, 1970.

Green, D.H., Ringwood, A.E., Ware, N.G., Hibberson, W.O., Major, A. and Kiss, E. Experimental petrology and petrogenesis of Apollo 12 basalts. Proc. Second Lunar Sci. Conf. 1, 601-615, 1971.

Ringwood, A.E. and Graham, A.L. Lunar basalt genesis: the origin of the europium anomaly. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 13, 105-115, 1971.

Ringwood, A.E. Petrogenesis of Apollo 11 basalts and implications for lunar origin: Reply to comments by S.F. Singer. J. Geophys. Res. 76, 8075-8076, 1971.

Green, D.H. and Ringwood, A.E. Crystallization of plagioclase in lunar basalts and its significance. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 14, 14-18, 1972.

Green, D.H., Ringwood, A.E., Hibberson, W.O. and Ware, N.G. Experimental petrology and petrogenesis of Apollo 14 basalts. Proc. Third Lunar Sci. Conf. 1, 197-206, 1972.

Ringwood, A.E. Some comparative aspects of lunar origin. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 6, 366-376, 1972.

Ringwood, A.E. Zonal structure and origin of the moon. In Lunar Science III, editor C. Watkins, Lunar Science Institute, 651-653, 1972.

Green, D.H., Ringwood, A.E. and Ware, N.G. Experimental petrology and petrogenesis of Apollo 14 basalts. In Lunar Science III, editor C. Watkins, Lunar Science Institute 88, 654-656, 1972.

Green, D.H. and Ringwood, A.E. Significance of Apollo 15 mare basalts and primitive green glasses in lunar petrogenesis. In The Apollo 15 Lunar Samples, editors J. Chamberlain and C. Watkins, Lunar Science Institute, 82-84, 1972.

Duba, A., Boland, J. and Ringwood, A.E. The electrical conductivity of pyroxene. J. Geol. 81, 727-735, 1973.

Duba, A. and Ringwood, A.E. Temperatures in the lunar interior and some implications. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 18, 158-162, 1973.

Duba, A. and Ringwood, A.E. Electrical conductivity, internal temperatures and thermal evolution of the moon. The Moon 7, 356-376, 1973.

Green, D.H. and Ringwood, A.E. Significance of a primitive lunar basaltic composition in Apollo 15 soils and breccias. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 19, 1-8, 1973.

Ringwood, A.E. The minor element chemistry of lunar basalts. Lunar Science V, 633-635, 1974.

Ringwood, A.E. and Green, D.H. Maria basalts and composition of lunar interior. In Lunar Science V, 636-638, 1974.

Ringwood, A.E. Heterogeneous accretion and the lunar crust. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 38, 983-984, 1974.

Green, D.H., Ringwood, A.E., Hibberson, W.O. and Ware, N.G. Experimental petrology and petrogenesis of Apollo 17 mare basalts. In Lunar Science VI, 311-313, 1975.

Green, D.H., Ringwood, A.E., Hibberson, W.O. and Ware, N.G. Experimental petrology of Apollo 17 mare basalts. Proc. Sixth Lunar Sci. Conf. 1, 871-893, 1975.

Ringwood, A.E. and Green, D.H. Mare basalt petrogenesis. In Lunar Science VI, 677-679, 1975.

Ringwood, A.E. Composition and origin of the moon. In Lunar Science VI, 674-676, 1975.

Ringwood, A.E. Some aspects of the minor element chemistry of mare basalts. The Moon, 12, 127-157, 1975.

Kesson, S.E. and Ringwood, A.E. Mare basalt petrogenesis in a dynamic moon. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 30, 155-163, 1976.

Liebermann, R.C. and Ringwood, A.E. Elastic properties of anorthite and the nature of the lunar crust. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 31, 69-74, 1976.

Ringwood, A.E. Limits on the bulk composition of the moon. Icarus 28, 325-349, 1976.

Kesson, S.E. and Ringwood, A.E. Mare basalt petrogenesis in a dynamic moon. In Lunar Science VII, editor C. Watkins, Lunar Science Institute, 448-450, 1976.

Ringwood, A.E. and Kesson, S.E. Limits on the bulk composition of the moon. In Lunar Science VII, editor C. Watkins, Lunar Science Institute, 741-743, 1976.

Ringwood, A.E. and Kesson, S.E. A dynamic model for mare basalt petrogenesis. Proc. Seventh Lunar Sci. Conf., 1697-1722, 1976.

Ringwood, A.E. Basaltic magmatism and the chemical composition of the moon. I. Major and heat-producing elements. The Moon 16, 389-423, 1977.

Ringwood, A.E. and Kesson S.E. Basaltic magmatism and the chemical composition of the moon. II. Volatile and siderophile elements in the moon, earth and chondrites: Implications for lunar origin. The Moon 16, 425-464, 1977.

Ringwood, A.E. and Kesson, S.E. Further limits on the bulk composition of the moon. Proc. Eighth Lunar Sci. Conf., 411-431, 1977.

Ringwood, A.E. Mare basalt petrogenesis and the composition of the lunar interior. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A285, 577-586, 1977.

Ringwood, A.E. and Kesson, S.E. Composition and origin of the moon. Proc. Eighth Lunar Sci. Conf. 371-398, 1977.

Delano, J.W. and Ringwood, A.E. Indigenous abundances of siderophile elements in the lunar highlands: Implications for the origin of the moon. The Moon and the Planets 18, 385-425, 1978.

Delano, J.W. and Ringwood, A.E. Siderophile elements in the lunar highlands: Nature of the indigenous component and implications for the origin of the moon. Proc. Ninth Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. 1, 111-159, 1979.

Delano, J.W. and Ringwood, A.E. Chemistry and possible origin of the Apollo 15 Green Glass. Lunar and Planet. Sci. X, 286-288, 1979.

Delano, J.W. and Ringwood, A.E. "Pristine" highland rocks: A critical evaluation. Lunar and Planet. Sci. X, 289-291.

Ringwood, A.E., Delano, J.W., Kesson, S.K. and Hibberson, W.O. More on lunar siderophiles: The strange case of rhenium. Lunar and Planet. Sci. VI, 929-931, 1980.

Delano, J.W., Taylor, S.R. and Ringwood, A.E. Composition and structure of the deep lunar interior. Lunar and Planet. Sci. XI, 225-227.

Ringwood, A.E. Composition and origin of the moon. In Origin of the Moon, editors W. Hartmann, R. Phillips and G. Taylor, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, pp. 673-698, 1986.

Ringwood, A.E. and Seifert, S. Nickel-cobalt systematics and their bearing on lunar origin. In Origin of the Moon, editors W. Hartmann, R. Phillips and G. Taylor, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, pp. 249-278, 1986.

Ringwood, A.E. Terrestrial origin of the Moon. Nature 322, 323-328, 1986.

Ringwood, A.E. The Earth-Moon connection. Lunar Planet. Sci. 17, 712-713, 1986.

Ringwood, A.E. The making of the Moon. Lunar Planet. Sci. 17, 714-715, 1986.

Seifert, S. and Ringwood, A.E. The depletions of chromium and vanadium in the Moon. Lunar Planet. Sci. 17, 789-790, 1986.

Ringwood, A.E., Seifert, S. and Wänke, H. A komatiite component in Apollo 16 highland breccias: Implications for the nickel-cobalt systematics and bulk composition of the moon. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 81, 105-117, 1986.

Ringwood, A.E. and Seifert, S. Metal silicate partition coefficients for some volatile siderophile elements and implications for lunar origin. Lunar Planet. Sci. 18, 904-905, 1987.

Ringwood, A.E. Gordian knots and lunar origin. Lunar Planet. Sci. 18, 838-839, 1987.

Ringwood, A.E. Lunar origin: single giant impact on multiple large impacts? Lunar Planet. Sci. 19, 982-983, 1988.

Seifert, S. and Ringwood, A.E. Lunar siderophile signature and its genetic significance. Lunar Planet. Sci. 19, 984-985, 1988.

Seifert, S. and Ringwood, A.E. The lunar geochemistry of chromium and vanadium. Earth, Moon and Planets 40, 45-70, 1988.

Kato, T. and Ringwood, A.E. Was the Moon formed from the mantle of a martian-sized planetesimal? Lunar Planet. Sci. 20, 510-511, 1989.

Ringwood, A.E. Flaws in the giant impact hypothesis of lunar origin. Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 95, 208-214, 1989.

Ringwood, A.E. and Wänke, H. Cobalt and nickel concentrations in the "komatiite" component of Apollo 16 polymict samples: reply to R.L. Korotev. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.96, 490-498, 1990.

Ringwood, A.E. The Earth-Moon Connection. Z. Naturforsch 44a, 891-923, 1989.

Ringwood, A.E. Volatile and siderophile element geochemistry of the Moon: A reappraisal. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 111, 537-555, 1992.

Ringwood, A.E., Seifert, S. and Wänke, H. Comments on "Lunar meteorites: siderophile element contents, and implications for the composition and origin of the Moon" by P.H.Warren, E.A. Jerde and G.W. Kallemeyn, Earth Planet.Sci. Lett. 94, 165-166, 1989.

Ringwood, A.E., Kato, T., Hibberson, W. and Ware, N. Partitioning of Cr, V and Mn between mantles and cores of differentiated planetesimals: implications for giant impact hypothesis of lunar origin. Icarus 89, 122-128, 1991.

Ringwood, A.E., Kato, T. and Hibberson, W. High pressure geochemistry of Cr, V and Mn: implications for origin of the Moon, Nature 347, 174-176, 1990.

F. Nuclear waste disposal

Ringwood, A.E. Safe disposal of high level nuclear reactor wastes: A new strategy. Australian National University Press, Canberra, 64 p., 1978.

Ringwood, A.E., Kesson, S.E., Ware, N.G., Hibberson, W.O. and Major, A. Immobilization of high level nuclear reactor wastes in SYNROC. Nature 278, 219-223, 1979.

Ringwood, A.E., Kesson, S.E., Ware, N.G., Hibberson, W.O. and Major, A. Safe immobilization of high level nuclear reactor wastes. Scientific Advances and Community Risk, Australian Acad. Sci., 71-98, 1979.

Ringwood, A.E., Kesson, S.E., Ware, N.G., Hibberson, W.O. and Major, A. The SYNROC process: A geochemical approach to nuclear waste immobilization. Geochem. J. 13, 141-165, 1979.

Ringwood, A.E. and Kesson, S.E. Immobilization of high-level wastes in SYNROC titanate ceramic. Proc. Int. Symp. Ceramics in Nuclear Waste Mngment., Conf. 790421, Amer. Ceramic Soc./US Dept. Energy, Cincinnati, Ohio, 174-178, 1979.

Ringwood, A.E. The disposal of nuclear wastes, pp. 47-56. In Nuclear Issues in the Canadian Energy Context, editor E.P. Hincks. Royal Soc. Canada and Science Council of Canada, 279p., 1980.

Oversby, V.M., Sinclair, W. and Ringwood, A.E. The effects of radiation damage on SYNROC. Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management 2, editor G. McCarthy, 273-280, Plenum Press, New York, 1980.

Ringwood, A.E., Kesson, S.E. and Ware, N.G. Immobilization of U.S. defence nuclear wastes using the SYNROC process. Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management, 2, editor G.McCarthy, Plenum Press, New York, 265-272, 1980.

Ringwood, A.E. Safe disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Search 11, No. 10, 323-330, 1980.

Ringwood, A.E. Safe disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Fortschr. Miner. 58(2), 149-168, 1980.

Ringwood, A.E. Safety in depth for nuclear waste disposal. New Scientist 88, 575-575, 1980.

Ringwood, A.E. Australia could lead with SYNROC. Mining Review 9, 15-18, 1980.

Sinclair, W.S., McLaughlin, G.M. and Ringwood, A.E. The structure and chemistry of a barium titanate hollandite-type phase. Acta Cryst. B36, 2913-2918, 1981.

Ringwood, A.E., Oversby, V.M., Kesson, S.E., Sinclair, W., Ware, N.G., Hibberson, W.O. and Major, A. Immobilization of high level nuclear reactor wastes in SYNROC: A current appraisal. Nuclear and Chemical Waste Management, 2, 287-305, 1981.

Oversby, V.M. and Ringwood, A.E. Lead isotopic studies of zirconolite and perovskite and their implications for long range SYNROC stability. Radioactive Waste Management 1(3), 289-307, 1981.

Reeve, K.D., Tewhey, J.D. and Ringwood, A.E. Recent progress on SYNROC development. In The Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management Vol. 3, Editor, G. McCarthy, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 147-154, 1981.

Oversby, V.M. and Ringwood, A.E. Leach testing of SYNROC and glass samples at 85°C and 200°C. Nuclear Chem. Waste Manag. 2, 201-206, 1981.

Kesson, S.E. and Ringwood, A.E. Immobilization of sodium in SYNROC. Nuclear and Chemical Waste Management 2, 53-55, 1981.

Newkirk, H.W., Hoenig, C.L., Ryerson, F.J., Tewhey,J.D., Smith,G.S., Rossington, C.S., Brackmann, A.J. and Ringwood, A.E. SYNROC technology for immobilizing U.S. defense wastes. Amer. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 61, 559-566, 1982.

Oversby, V.M. and Ringwood, A.E. Leaching studies on SYNROC at 95°C and 200°C. Radioactive Waste Manag. 2, 223-237, 1982.

Sinclair, S. and Ringwood, A.E. Alpha-recoil damage in natural zirconolite and perovskite. Geochem. J. 15, 229-243, 1982.

Oversby, V.M. and Ringwood, A.E. Immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor wastes in SYNROC: A current appraisal. In Scientific Basis for Nucl. Waste Manag. Vol. 6, Editor S.V. Topp, pp. 75-82, 1982.

Ringwood, A.E. Immobilization of radioactive wastes in SYNROC. American Scientist 70, 201-207, 1982.

Ringwood, A.E. SYNROC and the nuclear debate. Habitat 10, p.25, April, 1982.

Ringwood, A.E., Oversby, V.M. and Kesson, S.E. SYNROC: Leaching performance and process technology. Proc. Internat. Seminar on Chemistry and Process Engineering for High-level waste solidification. Julich, Germany 1-5 June, 1981, Edited by R. Odoj and E. Merz, Vol. 1, 495-506, 1982.

Reeve, K.D. and Ringwood, A.E. The SYNROC process for immobilizing high level nuclear wastes. Proc. Conf. IAEA-CN-43/127 Seattle, 16-20 May, 1983. (Preprint of F32.)

Kesson, S.E. and Ringwood, A.E. Safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Rad. Waste Manag. and the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, 4, 159-174, 1983.

Ringwood, A.E., Major, A., Ramm, E.J. and Padgett,J. Uniaxial hot-pressing in bellows containers. Nucl. Chem. Waste Manag. 4, 135-140, 1983.

Kesson, S.E., Sinclair, W.J. and Ringwood, A.E. Solid solution limits in SYNROC zirconolite. Nucl. Chem. Waste Manag. 4, 259-265, 1984.

Kesson, S.E. and Ringwood, A.E. Immobilization of high level wastes in SYNROC-E. Proc. Materials Research Soc. Symposium 26, 507-512, Editor, D. Brokim, Elsevier, New York, 1984.

Ringwood, A.E. and Willis, P. Stress corrosion in a borosilicate glass nuclear wasteform. Nature 311, 735-737, 1984.

Reeve, K.D.and Ringwood, A.E. The SYNROC process for immobilizing high level nuclear wastes. Radioactive Waste Management, 2, Proc.Ser. IAEA-43/127, 307-324, Vienna, 1984.

Ringwood, A.E. Disposal of high-level nuclear wastes: a geological perspective. (Hallimond Lecture 1983). Mineralogical Magazine 49, 159-176, 1985.

Ringwood, A.E. and Kelly, P.M. Immobilization of high level waste in ceramic wasteforms. Proc. Roy. Soc. London A319, 63-82, 1986.

Levins, D.W., Reeve, K.D., Ramm, E.J., Kable, J.W., Tapsell, G., Ringwood, A.E. and Kesson, S.E. The SYNROC demonstration plant Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Radioactive Waste Management, Winnipeg, Canada, 7-11 Sept. 1986.

A.E. Ringwood:Treatment of High Level Nuclear Waste
Australia: Patent Appl. 523472.
Accepted 31/5/82; issued Nov. 1982.
Japan: Patent Appl. 88319/79 (allowed 1985).
Canada: Patent Appl. 331205, allowed 26/1/82.
USA: Patent Appl. 4274976 (54957); issued in June, 1981.

Europe: Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, UK. European Patent No. 0.007,236 (79301382.2) with the revised title High Level Radioactive Waste Immobilised in a mineral assemblage and process for Immobilizing High Level Radioactive Waste.

A.E. Ringwood: Process for Treatment of High Level (Military) Wastes. US Patent No. 1239248 (124953). Allowed February, 1980.

E.J. Ramm and A.E. Ringwood: Arrangements for Containing Waste Material.
Australia: Patent Appl. 524883, granted 10/3/83.
Japan: Patent Appl. 109533/81.
Canada: Patent Appl. 1186818.
Europe: Patent Appl. 81303221-6.
USA: under examination

E.J. Ramm and A.E. Ringwood: Containment of Waste Material. Patent application under examination.
Australia: 18163/83.
Japan: 156557/83.
Europe: 8330497.5.
Canada: 435578.
USA: 524841.

E.J. Ramm, W.J. Buykx, J.G. Padgett and A.E. Ringwood: Hot Pressing of Free Standing Bellows-like Canisters
Australia: Patent Appl. PH 01498

E.J. Ramm, W.J. Buykx, J.G. Padgett and A.E. Ringwood: Hot Transfer and Stabilizing Apparatus
Australia: Patent Appl. PH 01947.

Ringwood, A.E., Kesson, S.E., Reeve, K.D., Levin, D. and Ramm, E. SYNROC In: A Comparative Review of Nuclear Wasteforms, edited by W. Lutze and R. Ewing, pp. 233-334, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1988.

G. Geology, geochemistry, metallurgy

Ringwood, A.E. The principles governing trace element distribution during magmatic crystallization Part I. The influence of electro-negativity. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 7, 189-202, 1955.

Ringwood, A.E. The principles governing trace-element behaviour during magmatic crystallization Part II. The role of complex formation. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 7, 242-254, 1955.

Ringwood, A.E. Surface tensions of molten heavy metal iodides and their relation to sulphide paragenesis. Proc. Aust. Inst. Min. & Met. No. 180, 55-75, 1956.

Ringwood, A.E. A study of the role of a gas phase in segregation and concentration of trace elements in a magma. Proc. Aust. Inst. Min. & Met. No. 180, 75-96, 1956.

Ringwood, A.E. The geology of the Deddick-Wulgulmerang area, East Gippsland. Proc. Roy. Soc. Vic. 67, 19-65, 1955.

Ringwood, A.E. The geology of the Snowy River area, East Gippsland. Proc. Roy. Soc. Vic. 67, 67-74, 1955.

Gaskin, A.J. and Ringwood, A.E. Production of rutile from ilmenite and related ores. Aust. Patent Specifications 22, 815/56, 1-11, 1957. U.S. Patent Specifications 2, 954-278, 1-8, 1960. British Patent Specifications, 872, 944, 1-8, 1961.

Ringwood, A.E. Diamond compacts and process for making same. International Patent Application PCT/AU8.5/22201, 46 pp., 1985.

Ringwood, A.E. Diamond compacts and process. International Patent Application No. PCT/AU88/00058. 1988.

Ringwood, A.E. Diamond compacts and processes for making same. United States Patent Application No. 4,874,398, 1989

Ringwood, A.E. Abrasive compact of cubic boron nitride and method of making same. Australian Provisional Patent Application No. PK0297, 1990.

H. Books

Ringwood, A.E. Composition and Petrology of the Earth's Mantle. McGraw-Hill, 630 pp., 1975.

Ringwood, A.E. Origin of the Earth and Moon. Springer-Verlag, New York, 295 pp., 1979.

D.H. Green, Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2600.